Acute coronary insufficiency: causes, symptoms and treatment methods
Acute coronary insufficiency is a rather serious condition associated with impaired blood flow. The coronary vessels supply blood to the heart muscle, which is how it gets enough oxygen and nutrients, as well as being released from metabolic products. Insufficiency of the coronary system affects primarily the state of the heart, since the tissues of the body receive insufficient energy. Therefore, acute coronary insufficiency often leads to dangerous complications, and sometimes provokes a lethal outcome. Therefore, a person in this condition requires medical assistance.
Acute coronary insufficiency and its causes
As already mentioned, this condition is caused by impaired blood flow in the coronary vessels. The heart receives a much smaller amount of oxygen and nutrients, therefore it cannot work normally. The causes of this pathology can be very different:
- Acute coronary insufficiency usually develops when the vessels are blocked. For example, the cause is often a cholesterol plaque detached from the artery wall, which blocks normal blood flow. Sometimes the disease is associated with vein thrombosis, when the lumen of the vessel is closed by a blood clot.
- In some cases, the failure is due to spasm of the coronary vessels.
- Much less often the cause is vascular injury.
- The causes can also include inflammation of the vascular walls.
- Much less often, the lumen of the vessel is blocked by a tumor.
- Sometimes the reason lies in the poisoning. For example, in carbon monoxide poisoning (CO) carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin, forming persistent compounds. Because of this, red blood cells can no longer carry oxygen, which leads to myocardial insufficiency.
Coronary insufficiency: symptoms
Insufficiency of coronary vessels is accompanied by a stroke of angina (angina pectoris). At the same time, patients complain of pain behind the sternum, which periodically occurs and lasts from a few minutes to half an hour. The pain is usually burning and strong, sometimes it gives to the left shoulder, arm and shoulder blade.In some cases, angina occurs during physical exertion, but some patients complain of discomfort at rest, for example, during sleep. In addition, there are other symptoms: blood pressure rises, a person turns pale, becomes covered with cold sweat, often the fear of death occurs. Symptoms include frequent urge to urinate.
Coronary insufficiency: treatment
As already mentioned, patients in this condition require emergency medical care. If untreated, acute coronary insufficiency can lead to myocardial infarction. As for therapy, it depends on the cause of the development of this condition. First of all, the patient is prescribed nitroglycerin or valocordin, which stop the attacks of pain.