Carrots: growing and care. The best varieties of carrots. When to clean carrots
It has long been grown in Russia carrots - one of the most famous and sought after root vegetables. The extraordinary utility of this vegetable makes domestic summer residents from year to year plant it, and breeders - to work on creatingnew varieties. Garden beds with magnificent carrot foliage green leaves are an indispensable attribute of any modern garden. Unassuming carrots became the talk of the town, but things are not so simple. This simple root vegetable gardener puts forward quite a few requirements so that the harvest could really please. Therefore, we will analyze all the stages of its cultivation: from selection, culling of seeds and soil preparation to proper harvesting.
Choosing a place under the garden bed
The root crop is rather picky about choosing the place of its future growth. Bright solar areas, well ventilated and heated - this is the first condition that must be met.Growing carrots in shady or damp places will not bring adequate satisfaction - this will lead to significant loss of yields and a decrease in the taste of the root. Another necessary condition - the observance of the alternation of crops in the garden. Growing carrots every year in one place leads to a complete loss of the crop. Therefore, a change of landing sites is required. The best precursors of carrots are garlic, onions, tomatoes, cucumbers, cabbage, beans and potatoes. It should be remembered that after parsley, dill and celery planted it is not recommended.
Carrots are demanding on the soil. She likes friable, fertile, well-dug, drained loam and sandstone with neutral acidity. Ideally, if the soil is sufficiently wet and does not form a superficial crust. Before planting, any organic matter (humus, compost or peat) of 5 kg per 1 square meter is introduced into the soil layer. m and ash - 0.5 l. It is desirable to add sawdust to loamy soil - 3 liters per 1 square meter. m. It is important to remember that fresh manure in its pure form can not be applied to the soil. Landings just "burned." BesidesIn addition, a surplus of nitrogen fertilizers will lead to an increase in the nitrate content.
Experienced vegetable growers will never miss the dates of sowing carrots. It is very important. From the correct timing depends on yield. There are many different varieties, and
their ripening time also varies widely. In addition, it is necessary to remember about the desired timing of the collection of root crops and focus on them. To get an early "beam products", carrots are planted before winter or in the spring very early. In this case, use early ripening varieties. It should only be remembered whether subwinter seeding is possible in the climatic zone of your plot location. Very cold winters carrot seeds can not stand - they freeze even under good shelter. Therefore, the subwinter planting practice growers of warm climatic zones. In the middle Russian latitudes, it is better to give preference to early spring plantings. That is, carrots should be planted as soon as the first soil layer warms up. Return frosts can affect the keeping quality of root crops and provoke marksmanship, but this is not essential for “puchkovy products” - it is removed from the bed in the middleof the summer. For long-term storage are perfect varieties of carrots medium and late ripening. They are sown when the soil layer is heated to + 15-18 ° C.
Needless to say about the quality of the seed, because it is the main condition for the emergence of root crops. Presowing treatment will help remove ballast seeds and speed up germination time. They are filled with warm water (you can add a few grains of potassium permanganate for disinfection) and remain for 0.5 days. All substandard seeds necessarily pop up. After their removal, another manipulation is performed. On a wet piece of cloth or gauze, the seeds are laid out in several layers and kept for several days, preventing them from drying out and creating a warm humid atmosphere. This will speed up their smacking.
Planting carrots carried out in well-moistened and deep enough grooves. But bury the seeds is also not recommended - carrots can not germinate. Ideally deepen them by 3 cm. Seeds are planted with an interval of 2 cm between them, at least 15-18 cm between the rows. After sowing, the soil in the garden should be well compacted. Seeds should not be in air pockets.
When the air temperature is + 15–18 ° C, shoots will appear in about 2 weeks. Carrots are fairly resistant to short-term cold snaps and can withstand frosts down to –4 ° С.
The demands of carrots extend to the regularity of tillage. Qualitative weeding of the bed is obligatory, the first of which may be required even before the moment when the carrots germinate. Cultivation and care involve weeding, as the root crop does not tolerate the neighborhood of weeds, therefore, they must be cleaned immediately upon appearance.
Another mandatory procedure - loosening. An important condition for getting
quality root crops: the soil in the garden should be maintained in a loose state. The formation of an earth crust blocks the access of air and leads to a curvature, thickening of the upper layer, deterioration of the taste of carrots.
It is possible to ensure that the carrots grow large and sweet, have a presentation and not be crooked. Another step in the growing process algorithm is the need to monitor the level of planting thickened. The first thinning should be carried out after appearing on sprouts of the first true leaves.The interval between adjacent carrots should not be less than 3 cm. If the seeds were sown with special planters and were planted sparsely, then there is no need for the first thinning. As the appearance of two pairs of new leaves, the thinning procedure can be repeated, increasing the interval between adjacent cultures to 5-6 cm.
Watering and feeding
The demanding carrot is cruelly avenging for the lack of water: the taste of root crops grown in such extreme conditions is far from pleasant. Therefore, watering is certainly very important at every stage of cultural development. Spill a bedIt should be at a depth that corresponds to the length of the root, you can not allow the water to just run off without penetrating inside. Here the qualitative loosening of the soil under the carrots will play its role. Cultivation and care involve frequent but not abundant watering. They should be most intense in the period between sowing and the emergence of sprouts, as well as when gaining the mass of the root crop. Evening time is ideal for moisturizing. Approximately 3 weeks before the ripening of carrots, watering is stopped to avoid cracking of root crops during storage.
During the summer season, carrots are fed twice.First, fertilizers are applied after 3-4 weeks after the shoots appear, and then - after another 1-1.5 months. The most convenient way to apply fertilizer is in solution. In a 10-liter bucket of water, 30 g of nitrophoska, 20 g of potassium nitrate, 15 g each are diluted
superphosphate and urea. As the drugs completely dissolve, 2 cups of ash are added and with this compound (1 bucket per 1 sq. M), carrot crops are watered.
Carrot Diseases and Pests
Carrots are less prone to disease. Most often there is a risk of injury.Alternaria or fomozom. This can occur if the spring bed was not processed Bordeaux mixture, neutralizing pathogenic bacteria. It must be said that spring preparation includes compulsory spraying of soil, fruit trees and shrubs, berries and other crops with this composition.
The main enemy of carrots is a carrot fly, whose presence is determined by the twisted tips of the leaves. The most effective protection against this pest will be quality care for crops. Usually it appears on untidy or overly wet beds. Sometimes it's enough just to weed out and remove the damaged plants,but if this fails, intensive spraying with special preparations “Inta-vir”, “Inta-S”,
The best varieties of carrots
It is time to talk about varieties. A lot of them. But every seasoned grower has his own set of the most favorite varieties. Many gardeners prefer the most fruitful varieties, which include Alenka, Nantes, Vitaminna, Tushon, Autumn Queen, Flaccus, and other carrots. They all have different ripening periods, so there is no definite answer to the question of when to pick carrots.
- Alenka is an early ripe variety, ripening 50 days after germination of seedlings. The length of the mature root reaches 12-15 cm, and weight - 145 g
- Tushon is an early maturing variety, which makes it possible to use it in cooking 2 months after germination. The mass of root crops of this variety is 150 g, length - 20 cm.
- Medium-ripening Nantes carrots ripen for 3 months. Plump, with a blunt tip, sweet and smooth roots reach 165 g each, and their length is 16 cm.
- It is very appreciated by domestic gardeners mid-season Vitamin carrots.Growing and caring for it takes 110-120 days. Root, having a high concentration of provitamin A - carotene, reaches 15 cm in length, and weighs up to 150 g
- Flacca is one of the later varieties, ripening at 110-120 days after sowing. The length of such carrots reaches record marks of 30 cm, and weight - 150-170 g.
- The Queen of Autumn is a late ripe carrot variety (125-135 days), whose keeping quality level is ideal. It is perfect for winter storage. The root mass is about 160 g, length - 20 cm.
Comparing the time of ripening of different varieties, you can roughly plan the time of harvesting the next harvest. So, with the emergence of mass shoots, for example, in the second decade of May, we can assume when to remove carrots. If an early crop is sown, harvest will begin in mid or late July. Mid-season varieties are harvested in August-September, late-ripening varieties - at the end of September.
From the history of carrots
Historically, the last 5 centuries, carrots have become the most popular vegetable in the Northern Hemisphere. Not knowing about the high taste qualities of root crops, which then had purple and yellow shades, people first used carrot tops for food.Orange varieties breeders brought only in the 17th century.
Orange shades of carrots are the most familiar to us. But nature is ambiguous, and the color of the root depends on the prevalence of coloring pigments in it. Anthocyanins stain carrots in all shades of blue, red and violet-purple. Carotenoids give rich orange, red and yellow tones. There are also white carrots. Photos of various coloring root crops are attached.
But regardless of the color of the root, its benefits are colossal. It contains an incredible amount of trace elements, salts and vitamins, the unique compounds that help maintain immunity, normalize the harmonious work of all internal organs and the brain. Here is such a simple and magical vegetable - carrots. Cultivation and care, of course, cause trouble, but they are rewarded.