Ceramic granite: characteristics, scope and properties
Ceramic graniteis a relatively new finishing material. Its mass production began in the 70s of the last century in Italy. Today this material is in great demand. This is due to its improved performance.
Porcelain tile combines the qualities of artificial and natural material. This is achieved thanks to a special method of manufacturing tiles. Under natural conditions, granite is formed for a long time. This is a difficult process. Today, humanity is able to recreate the natural technology and even slightly improve it. What is this finishing material, as well as its scope, will help to understand the professional builders.
Ceramic graniteis an artificial material. However, it is made from natural ingredients.They consist of sand, clay, feldspar and dyes. Its operational properties are laid in the manufacturing process.
The listed components are treated with high pressure and temperature. It is this method of production that allows materials to give completely new qualities. However, this process turns out to be more difficult in detailed consideration.
All initial components are carefully selected. They must meet certain parameters. After their grinding, the processing process takes place. During the production cycle, a new finishing material is obtained. Its main properties are significantly different from those qualities that the raw materials possessed.
In 2001, our country began mass production.ceramic granite.Estimabecame one of the first companies that mastered the Italian technology. Today, this manufacturer does not lose its position in the market.
The technology of creating the presented finishing material has certain features. First, the selected components are crushed. They are mixed together, and then with water. A certain proportion is maintained.After that, a mass of uniform consistency is obtained.
The blank is pressed. Depending on the characteristics of the future finishing material, several specific steps are performed. Inside the dense tile has no voids. Before roasting, remove excess moisture. Porcelain tile undergoes the drying process. Roasting is performed at a temperature of 1300 degrees. The components of the material react at this moment with each other, melt. Mass acquires vitrified appearance and new qualities.
There are several approaches to the classification of porcelain. First of all, the material is divided into groups according to the type of surface. It is glossy, glossy, structured andunpolished ceramic granite.In the first embodiment, using a diamond abrasive, the top layer of the tile is processed in production. Such material is used for interior decoration.
The opaque (unpolished) porcelain tile is not exposed to additional processing. This material is more durable than the previous type. It can be used for exterior decoration of the building.
A glazed tile is obtained by applying a special composition to the surface before firing.The structured category of materials has a special surface relief. This may be a geometric or close to the natural pattern. Most often, this type of porcelain tile is used when finishing the steps and the floor in wet rooms.
By type of coloring they distinguish homogeneous, partially colored and glazed porcelain stoneware. They differ in production technology. Homogeneous brown, white,gray ceramic graniteand other similar varieties have a uniform color. This option is considered standard. It is produced with the observance of conventional production technology. A dye is added to the mixture, which is uniformly distributed throughout the material in the process of pressing and firing.
Partially painted porcelain is created in two stages. After creating a homogeneous mass and pressing it, the workpiece is again subjected to high pressure. At this point, an additional layer is applied to the surface. It defines the final tile pattern.
Porcelain tiles can be glazed. It is produced according to standard technology, however, before firing, a layer of special material is applied to the surface.Glaze determines the appearance of the material.
Ceramic granite (multicolor, monochrome, glazed, etc.) has a set of certain characteristics. The main qualities of the presented materials include wear resistance and low water absorption. There are practically no scratches on the tile during mechanical impact on the surface. It does not break, chips are not formed. The degree of abrasion of the surface is determined by classification (5 categories in total).
The water absorption of the material is extremely low. This explains its durability, resistance to adverse environmental conditions. The material withstands low temperatures and their sudden drops.
Ceramic granite does not react with various chemicals that may be in the environment. The sun's rays can not make the color less bright. The coefficient of thermal conductivity of artificial material is less than that of natural granite.
Thanks to the presented production technology, it is possible to produce a finishing material of various sizes, colors and textures.This provides many opportunities in the process of finishing various rooms. The material is suitable for almost any type of interior and exterior.
may have different dimensions. The smallest product is 5x5 cm. Such tiles are used for mosaic decoration of bathrooms, showers. For covering the floor in a small bathroom, products of 20x20 cm are suitable.
The most popular are plates with dimensions of 60x60, 40x40, 60x90 cm. Such materials are suitable for finishing medium and large rooms. The largest size is 120x360 cm. Large-sized slabs are used for finishing public buildings (railway station, hall, etc.).
The small size of the finishing elements will hide the unevenness of the base. However, in this case there will be more seams on the surface. For plates measuring 60x60 cm, a perfectly level base is required.
The thickness of the material can vary from 3 to 30 mm. Thin varieties are used to finish the walls with large plates. Ceramic granite with a minimum thickness of 8 mm is used for the floor. If there is large equipment in the room, the plates must be at least 12 mm thick.
Edged Porcelain Tile
Today is very popularedged ceramic granite.This material is a plate, which, after the process of pressing and firing were gash in a special way. The edges of such material are cut at an angle of 90º. Thanks to this approach, it is possible to mount a finishing material with minimal visible seams or without them at all.
This is one of the most beautiful types of finishes. It is used almost always indoors. In the manufacture of edged plates have small dimensions. They are laid with a minimum gap (not more than 1 mm). However, professional builders do not recommend mounting such a finish without seams at all.
The presented type of material has several features. After cutting the tile size is reduced by approximately 3 mm from all sides. If the buyer purchases porcelain stoneware 40x40 cm, then the actual dimensions of such a material may be 396x396 mm. Each manufacturer has its own particular format. The size of the plates may be a few millimeters different depending on the brand.
There are several options for the application of the material presented. For example,ceramic granite multicolor unpolished size60x60, 120x150 cm is used for facades. Large sizes are suitable for the building of the store, an entertainment complex. Smaller slabs can be used for private homes. The larger the dimensions of each element of decoration, the thinner the material has.
In this case, be sure to take into account the weight of the finish. If you want to mount porcelain tiles on the walls, you need to calculate the mass of the plates. Such a finishing material exerts an additional load on the foundation. The frame of the building must be prepared and reinforced in advance. Facade unpolished porcelain tile has a strength class of 8 (out of a possible 10). This is a great indicator that natural material cannot achieve.
Polished varieties of material can be used to finish floors indoors. Such ceramic granite will have a lower strength class (6 units). The decorative effect of using this material will be high.
Ceramic graniterepresented on the market of finishing materials by domestic and foreign companies. The cost is determined by the dimensions, thickness, coloring material.Also, much depends on the brand of porcelain.
Domestic goods will cost about 500 rubles / m² with a size of 60x60 cm. A similar format of Italian porcelain stoneware costs much more. The price is approximately 1.3-1.6 thousand rubles / m². The same material produced in Spain costs about 600-900 rubles per m².
It is possible to purchase slabs with non-standard dimensions, but their cost will be much higher. For example, plates with dimensions of 10x10 cm of domestic production will cost about 1.7 thousand rubles / m².
Experts do not recommend to buy cheap tile (200-300 rubles / m²), as its quality leaves much to be desired. In one package may be plates of different sizes. Their performance will be much lower.
Having considered the basic properties and features of the use of porcelain stoneware, it can be noted its high performance. The material is durable, reliable and beautiful. Therefore, porcelain stoneware today everywhere in demand.