Deep bite: causes, symptoms, diagnosis and features of treatment
Deep occlusion is an anomaly of teeth closing, in which the incisors located on the upper jaw overlap the lower jaw to a height of more than a third of the level of the crowns. This eliminates the normal contact between the teeth.
In some cases, such a violation may also occur in the area of the lateral parts of the dentition. In the event of a violation, it is imperative to conduct a comprehensive diagnosis and subsequent treatment, since there can be various kinds of dangerous consequences.
Features of the violation
Many consider anomalies with the dentition only an aesthetic defect. However, in fact, appearance almost always suffers much less than health. Quite often such an anomaly of the development of teeth as a deep bite occurs.
Visually, such a pathology can not always be assessed as a lack of appearance, but its negative impact on the body is quite large.It is characterized by the fact that the upper and lower chewing and front teeth do not match each other. In addition, it is worth noting that such a violation can trigger the emergence of many different problems and pathologies.
There are several varieties of deep bite, which largely depend on the type of relationship between the front teeth. There are two forms of this pathology, in particular, such as horizontal and vertical. The horizontal shape is a complication of prognathic bite. The vertical view of the disturbances proceeds with the blocking of the movements of the lower jaw, and also the hinged movements prevail when it moves forward and to the sides.
An anomaly of development can be characterized by the interaction of the posterior teeth, as a result of which two types of such a violation can be distinguished, in particular, deep distal bite and neutral. Distal has such characteristics as:
- visually shortened face;
- exposure of the upper incisor crowns;
- overlap of the lower incisors frontal;
- Chin slightly sloping or normal shape.
The pronounced deep bite has such characteristics as:
- the absence of special violations of the child’s face;
- the chin has a normal shape;
- the lower front teeth are completely overlapped by the upper ones.
In the presence of all these signs, it is imperative to consult a doctor so that he can make a correct diagnosis and prescribe the appropriate treatment.
Causes of anomalies
To accurately diagnose deep bite, causes and symptoms must be taken into account in the first place. Such a violation, mainly occurs in the case of a genetic predisposition, as well as the influence of external factors. Among the main causes of anomalies can be identified such as:
- fetal abnormalities;
- features of the prenatal period;
- external factors.
If one of the parents has a reverse incisal overlap, then there is a high probability that a child will have this anomaly. In addition, children can inherit the size of the teeth and some features of the development of the jaw bones.
Of great importance are the features of the prenatal period. Maternal health is largely determined by the characteristics of the child’s development.That is why you need to take care in advance that the pregnancy is not complicated by various diseases.
The location of the teeth is greatly influenced by various pathologies of the fetus, in particular, such as:
- developmental delay;
In addition, an anomaly can form in case of complications during childbirth. The child does not have to have a predisposition to the pathological development of the dental system. In some cases, the defect is formed after exposure to external factors or various diseases.
Deviation can occur even in adults as a result of malnutrition or diseases of the ENT organs, the respiratory or endocrine system, and also the stomach. Treatment may be required if a person nibbles on hard objects, slouches, or does not follow teeth well.
Most adults learn that they have a deep bite, according to external manifestations, when the lower dentition is almost completely blocked by the upper one. However, this is not the only sign. Depending on the type of pathology, symptoms vary.
If in adults it is possible to determine the presence of an anomaly by external signs, then a deep bite in a child can be recognized only by such symptoms as:
- increased abrasion of teeth, cracks in the enamel;
- caries and high sensitivity of teeth;
- difficulty chewing hard foods;
- diseases of the respiratory system and ENT organs;
- problems with diction and speech defects.
In addition, the shell of the hard palate is inflamed, as it is permanently injured by the lower teeth. The presence of at least two signs of pathology is a reason to go to the doctor-orthodontist. It is worth remembering that in childhood, when the bite is not yet fully formed, the elimination of the defect is much faster and easier than in adult patients.
The dentist-orthodontist deals with the problems of malocclusion;
- mouth guards;
- special records;
- bracket system.
Diagnose, establish the causes of the formation of pathology and make a plan for treatment can only be received at the orthodontist. The specialist collects anamnesis, complaints, and also conducts an inspection of the oral cavity.For the implementation of full diagnostics, special diagnostic models are made. For this, a cast is taken from both jaws. It is on them that all the required measurements are taken.
In addition, the doctor takes several photographs of the patient, and also prescribes additional research methods, in particular, such as:
On the basis of the data obtained, the most effective method for correcting the deep bite is selected, thanks to which one can obtain the best result.
How to correct a deep bite in adults and children, only the dentist decides, since everything depends on the individual characteristics and the age of the patient. In early childhood, until the formation of a permanent bite, it is much faster and easier to eliminate the anomaly of the dentition. Therefore, parents definitely need to carefully monitor the health of the child's mouth and contact a dentist when the first signs of a violation occur.
Removable accessories can be used to correct bite in children.Depending on the main reason for the formation of pathology, the child may be shown cutting the frenulum, prosthetics, and caries treatment. This is required if the violation is due to early loss of milk teeth.
It is desirable to further enhance the effectiveness of therapy by including a sufficient amount of solid foods in the diet. Correction of deep bite in adults is considered to be a rather complicated process, and therefore a lot of effort needs to be made to effect correction. Defect elimination is possible with the help of bracket systems. They are fixed structures made of ceramic or metal. For correction of deep bite braces can be used only in patients over 12 years old.
Adult patients often prefer ceramic or sapphire structures, despite the fact that metal is considered the most effective. The patient should remember that bite correction with similar structures is a long process, and their installation is quite expensive.
Treatment of children
To determine how to correct a deep bite in adults or children, it is necessary to initially determine the cause that provoked the occurrence of the anomaly, and also take into account the age of the patient.In this case, you need to use special orthodontic appliances.
Treatment of deep bite in a child from 2 to 6 years old implies:
- timely introduction to the diet of fresh fruits and vegetables;
- cutting bridles in the lips and tongue;
- timely treatment of caries and prosthetics;
- ridding the child of bad habits.
This will eliminate the existing anomaly of development of the jaw in case it is not strongly expressed. In the case of a distal deep bite in a child, the treatment plan is much more complex and includes:
- expansion of the dental arches;
- leveling bite height;
- the correct placement of the front teeth.
In this case, a correction is assigned without braces and other complex devices. The whole process of therapy is limited to the application of the bite plate and the conduct of special exercises, which contributes to the growth of the jaw in the right direction.
More active correction of deep bite in children begins at the age of 6-9 years, when baby teeth are replaced by permanent ones. At the same time, orthodontists mainly use mouthguards, removable plates, retainers, as well as many other devices that transfer force from the masticatory muscles to the teeth.
The elimination of the pathology in children after 12 years of age implies the use of various lingualgial and vestibular braces. They contribute to a more rapid correction of abnormal bite and correct the location of the front teeth.
The correction of deep bite in adults is carried out with the help of special braces. You can use such devices as:
- aircraft boarding;
If the patient is unwilling or unable to wear braces, then veneers, which are special orthodontic plates made of composite or porcelain, will help. They are designed to replace the outer layer of the tooth. Despite the fact that the appearance of a patient with a deep bite before and after applying veneers changes dramatically, this approach cannot completely eliminate the root cause of the defect and is only a temporary solution.
Another common option to eliminate the violation is considered to be prosthetics using implants. It should be noted that this method of treatment of deep bite in adults is quite complicated and expensive, and also has a number of contraindications.Prosthetics is a reliable and effective way to get rid of incisive deep overlap, which requires much less time than using braces.
The use of special devices
How to correct a deep bite, will be able to recommend an orthodontist taking into account the available indications. Correction of minor defects of dental bite implies the use of certain guiding devices, in particular, such as:
Trainers are certain silicone products. When applied, the teeth take the desired healthy location in the mouth. Such devices are put on for a short time. The apparatus used has a standard size, which greatly facilitates the task of the orthodontist doctors. There are products that are used at the very beginning of treatment and at the final stage of therapy.
Another good device is retainers, which are used to fix the corrected dentition, as well as for preventive purposes. Such products are flexible and do not provoke any discomfort during the application.It is best to use a trainer at the age of 10 years.
Capes which are made of bioplastic or biosilicone are widely used. Such devices are installed on the lower or upper jaw. They have a shade close to the natural color of enamel. Correction of the deep bite by caps helps to quickly get rid of the existing problem.
The plates are intended only for children and they are made of plastic. The upper plates are attached to the sky and fixed with special metal clips to the teeth, and the lower ones are attached to the teeth and gums. Such products are convenient, do not carry the load and do not require special care.
Looking at the photo of the correction of the deep bite with braces before and after applying a special design, one can be convinced of the high effectiveness of the use of such systems. Doctors distinguish several types of braces, depending on the design and method of fasteners. Ligated systems are characterized by a constant weakening of the ligature. The locks that make up such a device provide the required rigidity and limit slipping over the teeth.
Self-adjusting devices are fixed with a lid inside the lock and fit snugly to the sky. They are quite comfortable and practical in use, as well as affordable.
Lingual systems are selected strictly according to individual parameters of the human jaw apparatus. They are very comfortable and aesthetic, as they are attached to the inside of the dentition.
Pros and cons of using removable devices
Among the main advantages of the use of removable devices for correcting the bite are the following:
- they do not provoke pain and discomfort;
- practically invisible on the teeth;
- do not cause allergies;
- do not require special care.
It should be noted that this device has certain disadvantages. Among them it is necessary to highlight the fact that with their help only simple anomalies of bite in an adult can be corrected. It is worth noting that the jaw and teeth are formed by about 12-14 years old, and after that it is impossible to eliminate serious anomalies without using bracket-systems. In addition, the disadvantage is the high cost of treatment with the use of individual cap.
In severe cases, the treatment of deep bite is carried out exclusively by surgery. It is resorted to only if there are dangerous deformations of the dental system. Basically, the operation is carried out if the anomaly is combined with mesial, distal or diesel occlusion. The main methods of surgery should include such as:
- saggital osteotomy.
Compactosteotomy involves a violation of the integrity of the layer of alveolar processes to reduce the resistance of bone tissue. Osteotomy - separation of the upper jaw from the bones of the skull and its subsequent fixation in the correct position with the help of plates and pins. Sagittal osteotomy - the displacement of the lower jaw in the normal position, the subsequent fixing it with screws and attachment to the upper dentition using screeds.
Due to improper closing of the jaw, it becomes very difficult for a person to bite off and chew food, and as a result of a decrease in the volume of the oral cavity, the process of swallowing it becomes much more difficult.Not well chewed food is much more difficult to digest, which leads to disruption of the digestive system.
As a result of increased load on the front teeth, they wear out much faster. When the enamel is thinning, there are strong painful sensations when hot, cold, sour and sweet foods hit the teeth. In the presence of bite anomaly, a decrease in the tone of the muscles involved in the process of chewing is observed. As a result, the temporomandibular joint function deteriorates dramatically.
The patient has strong pains in the jaw, and he may also notice a click and a crunch. Against the background of existing problems may also be headaches. Permanent injury to the mucous of the upper jaw can lead to the formation of painful ulcers.
Over time, problems with bite can lead to loose teeth, the formation of large gaps between them, as well as exposure of the cervical area. That is why bite correction should be carried out as soon as possible.
In the presence of a deep bite, the correction of such a violation should be carried out in childhood as early as possible, even during the eruption of milk or first permanent teeth.Since the wrong bite is formed under the influence of various external factors, experts recommend that the child be taught to eat solid food so that the jaws develop normally.
If the child has bad habits, in particular, such as thumb sucking, biting the lips, then there is a need to use special trainers and plates. In addition, such a violation is sometimes accompanied by an abnormal attachment of the frenulum of the tongue, which requires surgery.
During the period of mixed bite, that is, at the age of 5 years and older, it is recommended to carry out active treatment with an orthodontist using special function-guiding apparatus, which transfer the load to individual teeth. In adolescence, when the bite has already formed, the deviation from the norm can be eliminated with the help of fixed braces, since removable structures cannot completely remove the problem.
The most optimal treatment is at the age of 5-9 years, when there is a complete change and growth of the molar teeth.
Conduct preventive measures
Prevention of the occurrence of deep bite in children is quite simple and comes down to compliance with such measures:
- observation of the child;
- timely visits to the dentist;
- getting rid of bad habits;
- timely treatment of caries;
- prevention of rickets.
Treatment of malocclusion in adults always requires special efforts and financial costs. The duration of therapy depends largely on the age at which the diagnosis was made, as well as the degree of curvature. Timely diagnosis of violations will help save time and finances, so you need to undergo inspections in a timely manner with specialists.
The prognosis after treatment is quite favorable, since orthodontic intervention allows, if not completely eliminating the existing defect, then to achieve significant improvements in the condition of the teeth. The duration of the elimination of anomalies depends on many different factors, which is very important to consider.