Dental implantation: reviews. Cost, indications and contraindications, stages and terms of the procedure
Dental implantology is considered one of the most promising areas of dentistry. A few decades ago, people had no choice, and instead of loose teeth, they could only have bridges. Now, in the absence of contraindications, implantation of teeth can be performed. Patient reviews indicate that this procedure allows you to forget about all your dental problems.
If you do not have certain dental units, but you do not want to install bridges, then you will be interested to know how teeth are implanted. The clinic you choose to perform this procedure should specialize in carrying out such procedures.After all, it depends on the equipment, specialization of the doctor, his professionalism and experience, how well the new tooth will be installed, and how long it will last.
At its core, the implant is a metal rod that is screwed into the bone. It is located in the place where the extracted tooth was located. The indicated core should play the role of a root, an abutment is fixed on top of it, on which a crown is subsequently put on. The implant becomes an excellent replacement for an ordinary tooth. In compliance with all technologies of the installation process, the service life of such structures is long enough.
The usual implantation procedure is carried out in 2 stages:
- implanting a rod made of medical titanium into the bone tissue;
- prosthetics on implants.
This process is quite lengthy. Engraftment can last several months, so the complete installation of such artificial teeth can take up to six months. However, thanks to the use of modern technology in many clinics, a new service has appeared - express implantation of teeth. For its implementation, only one appointment with a doctor is sufficient.
As with any other medical intervention, there are cases when it is impossible to implant teeth. All contraindications are divided into absolute and relative. In the first case, implantation cannot be performed under any circumstances, and in the second, it is possible after elimination of certain factors that interfered with this process.
Absolute contraindications include the following:
- malignant tumors of any systems or organs - any intervention can cause the progression of the disease and lead to the death of the patient;
- endocrinological problems, such as adrenal gland diseases or diabetes;
- diseases of the blood and the relevant organs - during the operation, the bleeding may start, which cannot be stopped;
- diseases of the nervous system, such as psychosis, dementia, schizophrenia;
- pathologies of immunity, which are manifested by lupus erythematosus, thymus hypoplasia, parathyroid glands;
- problems with the oral cavity, such as chronic aphthous recurrent stomatitis;
- Systemic diseases of the connective tissue.
Also, experts distinguish the following relative contraindications:
- Some varieties of abnormal bite;
- Bruxism - gnashing of teeth at night;
- arthrosis-arthritis of the temporomandibular joint;
- precancerous conditions of the oral cavity;
- periodontal diseases such as gingivitis, marginal periodontitis;
- dental caries;
- problems with bone tissue of the jaw;
- poor oral hygiene.
Also, it is not necessary to carry out such dental treatment during pregnancy. Implantation of teeth is not done and those people who abuse coffee, alcohol, smoke. But when eliminating the factors that relate to relative contraindications, the question of installing artificial teeth can be considered.
There is a list of situations in which the doctor may recommend implantation.
- Single defect. In cases where one tooth was lost, and those near it are completely healthy, you can install a rod in the bone tissue and put a crown on it. At the same time, you will not have to grind the adjacent teeth and attach the bridge to them.
- End defects. Implantation and offer in cases where there is no group of chewing teeth.
- Included defects.Implantation allows you to restore 2-4 teeth in a row.
This option can be used as an alternative to a full denture. But considering the cost of implanting one tooth, it becomes clear that this is not a cheap pleasure.
All implants consist of two parts. The first one is the pin, which is fixed in the jawbone. It is a replacement for the root and holds the tooth firmly in position. The second part of the implant is the abutment. It is the link between the artificial crown and the pin itself.
Despite the fact that they all have the same design, there are many different types of implants. The most common are the studs made of titanium. This material is so popular due to its anti-corrosion properties and good biocompatibility with human bones. These characteristics of the metal are a kind of guarantee that during chewing after dental implantation the probability of damage and destruction of the bones will decrease.
The most commonly used pins rooted form.But they are recommended only when the patient has enough bone tissue. Classic implants look like multistage cylinders with thread. They are divided into screw and cylindrical. The first of them are easier to implant in the bone tissue, and they give less complications. This can be heard from many who have undergone dental implants. Reviews confirm the opinion of physicians that screw rods take root better.
Root pins differ in thread shape and surface texture. Each of the options is designed to provide a stronger fixation of the structure in the jawbone.
If root implants are not suitable for you for certain reasons, then you can replace them with laminar, intra mucous, combined, endodontically stabilized and other options. They are used in cases where there are problems with bone tissue due to its loss or anatomical features of the jaw.
For example, plate pins are recommended, as a rule, with terminal defects. They are used in patients with narrow jaws. Combined options are used in cases when it is necessary to restore large defects of the dentition. They are a combination of root and laminar variants.In addition to these intraosseous or, as they are also called, endosseous implants, there are also subperiosteal (subnatal), endodontically stabilized, intramucous rods. The first of these options are set between the bone and the periosteum. They are used in cases where the alveolar processes of the jaws are thinned. Endodontic-stabilized implants are installed so that they are fixed in the bone through the apex of the roots of the teeth. This allows less damage to the mucous surface and, accordingly, the healing process is faster. They are placed in cases where it is necessary to strengthen the root of the tooth.
In some cases, intra-mucous dental implantation may be performed. The price of such a procedure will depend on the required amount of work, the clinic where you will conduct it and the qualifications of the doctor. When it is carried out, nothing is implanted into the bone. As a rule, it is used in situations where it is necessary to stabilize a full or partial denture.
It should be noted that during the removal of teeth, the bone gradually collapses.In the first two years, it can atrophy by 60%, but the process does not stop there. Every year it decreases by another 1%.
Types of work on implantation
There are several options for how to install new teeth. Of course, doctors recommend doing a one-step procedure. This means that the pin is installed on the same day as the tooth extraction. It is implanted into the resulting well. However, it is permissible to postpone the installation of the rod to 2 months. The need for such a replacement is discussed in advance by the doctor. Therefore, even for such a simple procedure as tooth extraction, dentistry should be carefully chosen.
Implantation of teeth is often carried out in two stages. At first, a rod is inserted inside the bone. Further procedures are carried out in a few months. The abutment is installed only when the pin is fully caught in the bone.
Modern clinics offer accelerated methods for installing missing teeth. They work on the so-called express technologies. If the classical installation can take from 2 to 6 months, then modern methods allow you to put a new tooth in an hour. The patient will need a few more days after implantation to go to the doctor.
There are such accelerated types of dental implants:
- classical one-stage;
- with instant load.
To choose what type of installation missing teeth you need, should a doctor.
Types of express methods
Basal implantation of teeth allows you to simultaneously recover a large number of units. When carrying out this procedure, prostheses are placed within 3 days after the implant was implanted. Its design allows the future teeth to be securely fixed and prevents the possibility of their displacement. Such implants are placed in the deeper layers of the bone — they are destroyed last. Immediately after the basal implantation of the teeth is completed, the chewing load is allowed. This significantly reduces the time frame for engraftment.
Mini-implantation is designed to restore the entire dentition with only 4 installed pins. This method is less traumatic due to the small size of the implants, for such an installation does not need a large amount of bone tissue. Due to the fact that as a result of such an operation, no edema is formed, a prosthesis, a conditionally removable structure, can be immediately installed on the pins.It is not necessary to remove it from the mouth daily, it can be used on a permanent basis. But it is worth noting that this method is not durable. Prostheses on mini-implants serve in the region of 10-15 years.
Classic simultaneous procedures allow you to restore an unlimited number of teeth at the same time. But in terms of time and technology of this method, this method does not differ from the usual installation - it can stretch over half a year. After the removal of the tooth, a rod is inserted into the formed hole, which should take root. After that, an abutment is screwed into it, and a special crown is already being made on it.
Express implantation of teeth with an instantaneous load is considered the most aesthetic. The tooth is installed immediately. But it is used to correct single defects in cases where the patient has a sufficient amount of bone tissue. When choosing this method, adjacent teeth do not suffer, they can only be used for temporary attachment. Chewing load on new teeth should be increased gradually.
One-step method of installing new teeth has a lot of advantages.With this intervention, there is no need for a rehabilitation period, the gum remains intact, and the restoration does not cause circulatory disorders, is not the cause of edema and painful sensations.
It is carried out in several stages. Prosthetics of teeth, the implantation of new designs is not carried out without diagnosis. After that, the doctor removes the problem unit and sets in its place an implant of a suitable design. After that, you can already put temporary or permanent prostheses.
Non-surgical methods can be recommended for those who suffer from periodontal disease or bone problems.
Stages of classical implantation
The procedure for installing teeth in place dropped out is quite long. It begins with careful planning. At this stage, it is necessary for the patient to be examined by an implantologist, orthopedist, if necessary, a periodontist and orthodontist. The mandatory program includes panoramic images of the jaws or computed tomography in 3D format, depending on the situation. With the help of the obtained three-dimensional model of the jaw, the surgeon can virtually remove the teeth and see if it is possible to do so that a one-stage implantation of the teeth is performed.Reviews show that everything depends on the professionalism of the doctor and equipment in the clinic. Ideally, you should have two doctors: a surgeon and an orthopedist. But it can be one specialist, if he is an orthopedic surgeon.
Before the operation itself, it is advisable to pass general blood and urine tests in order to assess the state of health. Implantation is carried out only after caries is cured and all dental stones are removed. No less important are the next stages of dental implantation.
The main part of the procedure is the surgery itself. It is performed under strong local anesthesia. At this stage, a metal pin is implanted into the jaw bone. The procedure can last from 30 to 50 minutes. It begins with the fact that the mucous membrane is cut, a hole is drilled into the bone and a metal rod is inserted into it. After that, the wound is sutured. Judging by the reviews, this procedure can hardly be called pleasant, although it is painless.
The doctor may proceed to the next stage only several months later. They are given to ensure that the implant is well acclimatized - merged with the bone.This process is always followed by the doctor, so the patient must regularly visit his doctor. After the process of osseointegration is completed, the gum is cut again in the same place and the abutment is installed. After that, you need to wait another week.
The final stage is orthopedic work. Regardless of whether the dental implants are performed in St. Petersburg or in another city of the Federation, a crown or other necessary element of the prosthesis is placed on the abutment during the procedure.
Speaking about the high cost of such a procedure as the implantation of teeth, many forget that it allows you to maintain health, to restore the dentition without installing prostheses and damage to adjacent units. In addition, for its use of expensive high-quality materials. This all affects how much a tooth implantation costs.
The price can vary from 13 to 60 or more thousand rubles for each unit. Consider that it depends on the professionalism of the specialists, the popularity of the clinic, the cost of the equipment used in it, and the technology of the procedure.
For example, it is difficult to find a clinic where dental implantation can be carried out in St. Petersburg using the express method for less than 25 thousand rubles. Also affects the cost of the type of installed structures. For example, the price of implants MIS, Alpha Bio starts from 15 thousand rubles, and on the design of Nobel Biocare - from 30 thousand rubles. Also, the total cost will be affected if there is a need to build up bone tissue.
Before you decide on a procedure, you need to figure out how the implantation of teeth can end. Reviews of patients who have not gone smoothly, will help to understand what complications may arise. It is worth noting that they occur in approximately 5% of all those who decide to install artificial teeth.
Complications that may occur as a result of implantation are conventionally divided into two groups. The first of them include the consequences that arise because of the peculiarities of the procedure. These are such complications as:
- perforation of the maxillary sinus, mandibular canal, nasal cavity;
- the occurrence of problems due to damage to the soft tissues of the face;
- violation of the integrity of the facial artery and the occurrence of bleeding.
In addition, implantation of the lower teeth can result in damage to some nerves.
There are also a number of complications that are not connected with the professionalism of the doctors and the technique of the procedures. These potential problems include the following:
- implant rejection;
- atrophy of bone tissue in the area of pin engraftment;
- perimplantitis - the development of inflammation of the tissues adjacent to the rod;
- the appearance of bone growths in the area of attachment of the pin;
- development of inflammatory processes.
Avoiding the first group of problems is easy if you ensure that your doctor is a true expert in the field of implantology.
Opinions of patients
If you do not want problems that can appear only because of the lack of professionalism of people who will deal with your teeth, then the choice of dentistry should be approached thoroughly. To do this, you need to see not only its advertising, but also read reviews from people who have done implantation there. By the way, you can find out from them whether this procedure is painful, find out how often you need to visit a doctor and how much a new tooth will cost in total. Real clients of dentistry can tell how all stages of dental implantation are carried out.Information obtained not from experts in this field, but from clients, can more fully display a picture of the processes taking place in the dentist’s chair. After reading the real stories, it will be much easier to decide on a trip to the doctor and the implantation of new teeth.