Fibromatosis of gums: causes, forms, symptoms, treatment. Hyperplasia of gums

Fibromatosis of the gums is a pathological increasevolume of connective tissue. This pathology is considered genetically conditioned, but the exact causes that could contribute to the onset of the disease have so far been unclear.

General information on pathology

Gum fibromatosis

It is slowly progressing andis not very common. If a person has a genetic predisposition to it, then the first signs of pathology are manifested already at the stage of teething in the baby. In the absence of a hereditary factor, the disease can develop in young people, as well as in middle-aged patients.

Most often, patients are diagnosedgeneralized fibromatosis. In this case, connective tissue grows over the entire gum and its volume gradually increases further. This form of the disease subsequently leads to the fact that the teeth are completely hidden (even the cutting part).

Sometimes the patient has focal fibromatosis. Here the growth is limited in size. They are several foci, which are not connected to each other.

Causes of the disease

gingival hyperplasia

There are only a few reasons for the development of pathology:

  1. Hereditary predisposition. In this case, the disease manifests itself in the first year of life. To provoke the development of the disease may the body's reaction to teething or a violation of the hormonal background. In adults, generalized fibromatosis appears due to blood diseases, pregnancy.
  2. Application of medicines. The disease in this case is caused by such drugs as "Phenytoin" (for eliminating epileptic seizures), "Cyclosporine" (depressing immunity), and oral contraceptives. Dangerous can be calcium channel blockers: "Nifedipine", "Verapamil". To promote the development of fibromatosis also drugs for the treatment of hypertension.

The emergence of a dosage form of pathology does not depend on the sex of a person or his age. That is, it appears at any stage of life.

Main symptoms

swollen gingiva treatment

Fibromatosis of the gums is characterized by such symptoms:

  • Swelling of the interdental papillae, as well as the edges of the gums.
  • Homogeneity of the hue of soft tissues - they acquire a uniform pink color.
  • Change the shape of the gums, which become like rollers.
  • Sealing proliferation.
  • Difficulty in erupting crowns, both dairy and permanent.
  • Closure of teeth with an overgrown tissue at least half.

If a patient has such symptoms, then he develops gingival hyperplasia. Treatment of pathology is necessary, while it does not yet cause severe discomfort.

Degrees of development of fibromatosis

Gum fibromatosis progresses slowly. There are 3 stages of the disease development:

  • The first. The thickening of the gums becomes like a roller, and the overgrown tissue closes the teeth 1/3 of the height. The tissue structure is very dense.
  • The second. Here, the closure of half the crown is characteristic. During the cleaning of teeth or eating gum bleeds.
  • The third. The interdental papillae, as well as the surrounding soft tissues, increase to such an extent that they can completely cover the tooth. The edge of the gum becomes uneven, covered with a granulation tissue. It periodically bleeds, even if it does not succumb to mechanical stress.

It is advisable to begin therapy at the first stage of the disease, in order to avoid the appearance of complications. Most often, surgical intervention is used for treatment.

Complications and concomitant diseases

generalized fibromatosis

Fibromatosis of gums must necessarily be treated,because it gives a lot of discomfort. First of all, the patient on the gums develop deep gingival canals into which food enters. Its accumulation leads to the development of an inflammatory process accompanied by suppuration.

And in these pockets, tartar is formed,contributing to the trauma of soft tissues. Sprouting does not allow a person to bite and chew food properly, which provokes the development of gastrointestinal pathologies. The patient is unable to clean his teeth normally. At children crowns can not be cut, therefore deformation of a jaw bone can occur.

A rather dangerous complication of the diseaseis considered the destruction of partitions between the teeth, as well as a decrease in bone density. Hyperplasia of the gums leads to loosening and loss of the crowns. A very serious complication is the degeneration of the overgrown tissue into a malignant one. After its removal, recurrences of the disease may occur, which entails a second operation.

Diagnosis of the disease

If a person has swollen gums,treatment should be done only after an accurate diagnosis is established. It should be differential, as fibromatosis can be confused with other pathologies of the oral cavity: hypertrophic gingivitis.

The doctor appoints the patient such studies:

  • External examination of gums and fixation of complaints. The patient should describe his feelings in as much detail as possible.
  • Histological analysis of overgrown tissue.
  • Radiographic study.

In some cases, a biopsy of cells taken for analysis can be done to confirm or deny the presence of a malignant pathological process.

Treatment of the disease

fibromatosis gum treatment

If a person has swollen gums,treatment depends on what the cause of the disease provoked. For example, to eliminate the drug form of pathology, you simply need to cancel the drug that triggered the proliferation of tissue. In this case, the disease itself passes without a trace.

With regard to genetically determineddiseases, then, in addition to surgery, no other methods of therapy are applied, since they will simply be ineffective. Folk remedies can not stop the growth of tissues. There is currently no medical alternative to surgical intervention.

Surgical intervention lasts only half an hour. The operation involves removing the affected edge of the gum. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia. After the intervention, a special orthodontic bandage is applied to the gum. Thanks to her infection can not get into the wound.

During the operation, sanation is also carried outoral cavity. That is, the surface of the teeth must be removed plaque, you should also measure the depth of the gingival canals. After the intervention, the patient will need to periodically show up to the doctor to control the recovery.

Since the presented disease canthen after surgery, a person will need to carefully monitor their health, and try to prevent the resumption of tissue proliferation.

Prevention of fibromatosis

focal fibromatosis

If a person has previously been diagnosed with gum fibromatosis, treatment can not guarantee that he will not appear again. Therefore, the patient should follow such recommendations:

  • Daily hygiene of the oral cavity.
  • Try not to allow the appearance of dental diseases or treat them immediately when the first signs appear.
  • It is important to choose the right brush and toothpaste to clean the teeth, so as not to injure the gums.
  • If medications have been prescribed for the therapy of an inflammatory or infectious disease, then they should be taken very cautiously.

Fibromatosis is a very unpleasant and painful pathological condition, which not everyone can get rid of until the end. However, without treatment it can not be left.

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