How to identify the sacrament?
There are topics in morphology that are most difficult to read. Two of them concern two particular forms of the verb - the participle and the verbal adverb. ? Linguists are still arguing. Some say that this is a form of the verb, denoting a sign of the object performing the action. Others tend to believe that the sacrament can easily be attributed to an independent part of speech. Both are right.
How to identify the sacrament? It is necessary to focus on the presence of morphological signs. If a word has signs of a verb and an adjective, then this is the part of speech that we are describing.
From the verb participle inherited the form, the category of transitivity, reflexivity, time and pledge.
- To know - knowing (nev. View).
- Learn - recognized (perfect. View).
- I listen to music (ch. + N. In V. p.) - listening to music (transitional participle).
- Smile - smiling (returnable communion).
Time and pledge of participles
In Russian, there are two types of participles: real and passive. Many do not know how to identify the actual sacrament.The actual voice of the participle signifies the attribute of the object that performs the action itself. A falling book is a book that falls, it itself performs this action.
The real participles of the present tense are formed from the stem of the imperfect form with the help of the suffixes –usch-, -chuschik-; -Shield- The choice of designated suffixes depends on the verb conjugation. Rattling (what to do?) - rumbling (I right) - rumbling. Build (what to do?) - build (II spr) - building.
Actual past participles are derived from the verbs of perfect and imperfect tense with the suffixes -shsh-, -sh-. To adjust - adjusted. Zateat - started. Carry - Carried.
And how to determine the passive participle? The passive voice of a participle signifies a sign of an object that is experiencing an effect upon itself. Read book - the book is read by someone.
Suffering participles of the present tense are formed only from imperfective transitive verbs using the suffixes -om-, -em-, -im-. The choice of suffixes again depends on the verb conjugation. Restore (I Ref.) - recoverable. See (II Spr.) - visible.
For the formation of the passive past participles, the suffixes -nn-, -enn-, -t- are used. To tell - told, to persuade - convinced, to hire - hired.
Signs of the adjective
In the sentence, the participle, like the adjective, is closely related to the noun mode of agreement. That is, the participle has the same gender, number, and case as the word from which it depends. Look at an example:
The gardener walked carefully between the flowering bushes of roses (bushes - m., Pl. Tv. Blooming - m., Pl., Tv.p.)
Participle and verbal adjective
How to distinguish a participle from an adjective? In Russian, verbal adjectives are very similar to participles. But they have a number of serious differences.
- Verbal adjectives are formed from verbs of a perfect and imperfect type: boiled milk - (what to do?) Boil; desperate act - (what to do?) despair. The main difference is that the sacrament denotes a temporary sign associated with the action of the object (brewed tea). And the verbal adjective denotes the constant sign of the subject (She was raised and educated).
- Verbal adjectives have no dependent words; in participles, they can be: The patient was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (the word “disseminated is an adjective). It caused an eerie sensation of desperate emptiness, scattered over the waters of the Bosporus (dispersed over what? - the waters of the Bosporus) - participle.