How to distinguish a participle from an adjective?

Nadezhda Kazantseva
Nadezhda Kazantseva
February 1, 2013
15712
How to distinguish a participle from an adjective?

The ability to distinguish the participle from the adjective illustrates the baggage of human knowledge in the field of Russian language. This is especially true of writing. If you do not correctly determine which parts of the speech are in front of you, you can make mistakes and misrepresent the thought to the interlocutor. Therefore, we will tell you how to distinguish a participle from an adjective in order to correctly express your thoughts.

An adjective is an independent part of speech that designates a sign of an object, its quality and properties. Answers the questions "What?", "Whose?", "What?". It is classified by discharges, inclined by case, varies by numbers and genders. The proposal serves as a definition and predicate.

A participle is a form of a verb that possesses the characteristics of both a verb and an adjective. Answers the questions “What?”, “What is he doing?”, “What did he do?”, “What did he do?”, “What is he doing?”, “What has he done?”.Indicates a sign of the subject of action, inclined by case, varies in numbers and genders, as an adjective. The proposal acts as a definition.

As we can see, the participle and the adjective have many common features. However, there are signs that help distinguish these parts of speech from each other:

  • Communion more indicates the action of the object than its quality.

    Beautiful (adj.) - decorating (Pr. - the one that decorates)

  • The participle together with the participial turn (dependent words) is always isolated if it stands after the noun on which it depends.

    The sun shining so spring-like was already high.

  • The participle has the tense form of the present and past tenses, a valid ("reading") and passive ("readable") voice, like a verb. The adjective has no time and pledge.

    Clean (adj.) - cleaned (suffering., Past time), cleaning (actual., Present.).

  • An adjective has no reflexivity (the presence of a return suffix –sya, (s)), it may have a participle:

    To be observed (ch.) - to be observed (Pr.), To walk (ch.) - To stroll (Pr.).

  • The participle, like the verb, has a perfect and imperfect appearance, which the adjective does not have:

    Completed (perfect. View), ending (nev. View).

  • One of the most visible signs of participles is their distinctive suffixes that adjectives do not have:

    • -arch - (- box): dependent, breathing;
    • -usher - (- yushchiy-): writing, melting;
    • -im-: visible, audible;
    • - it - (- om -): readable, led;
    • -nn-: sowed, offended;
    • -enn - (- yonn-): grown, enthusiastic.

By these criteria one can understand how to distinguish a participle from an adjective.

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