How to propagate honeysuckle? Cultivation, care
Honeysuckle (lonitser, kaprifol) is a genus representing the family of honeysuckle. It has approximately 200 species. In the wild, it grows in the Himalayas, East Asia, Magadan, the Kuriles, Primorye, Altai and even in the Arctic. Now they grow honeysuckle decorative climbing and garden. She pleases gardeners with a beautiful appearance and delicious fruits. The berries of inedible honeysuckle bushes are red. Edible blue. Honeysuckle breeding is carried out recently, so that soon we are waiting for new high-yielding varieties with tasty berries.
The culture includes edible and blue.
According to the latest systematics, these species are combined into one - blue honeysuckle. Many varieties of edible honeysuckle are derived from them. They are pollinated by bees, while they are self-infertile. In order to get a harvest, you need to plant several varieties of this tree nearby.
Honeysuckle is a light-loving shrub that carries temporary shading.Starts to fructify at the age of two, sometimes even one year old. They live 80, sometimes 300 years. The plant can withstand frost up to 50 degrees. Flowers do not freeze at 8 degrees of frost. But it reacts to temporary warming by repeated flowering. It reduces the yield of the bush.
Honeysuckle is a great honey plant.
Edible honeysuckle - 1 meter tall shrub with a spherical crown. Its leaves reach 7 cm, pubescent, especially young. They have rounded stipules. The bark of honeysuckle has a yellow-brown color. Its distinctive feature is that it exfoliates from the trunk in thin strips.
The flowers are yellow, have the shape of a funnel, placed two. Flowering begins in late May. The berries differ in shape, depending on the variety, and can be round, cylindrical or elliptical. The size of the berries ranges from nine to twelve millimeters. Color - various shades of blue. The flesh is purple. Inside there are small seeds.
Honeysuckle blue reaches 2 m. The bark is brown. It also exfoliates from the branch. The leaf has the shape of an ellipse. The flowers are yellowish, bell-shaped, collected in inflorescences.The berries have an elliptical shape, fragrant, with a strong patina. The taste of the berries are sweet, slightly bitter. The bush grows 80 years.
Honeysuckle bush does not tolerate dry air. If possible, it should be placed near water bodies or flower beds and lawns that are regularly watered.
It is better to plant bushes in the direction from south to north. With this arrangement, they will be well lit and shade each other from the heat.
In order to have enough berries for the whole family, you need to plant at least five bushes, you can have seven, although 2-3 will be enough for pollination. However, they must be of different varieties. This can be achieved by growing seedlings from seeds. The process is long, but interesting.
Particular attention should be paid to the choice of a place for landing. Near the northern wall of the house they will have little light. The South will not fit, there it will be very hot. It is better to plant along the track.
Honeysuckle is planted throughout the growing season, but in the spring it is better to resist. During this period, the shoots of plants grow actively, and transplantation will interfere with this process. It is better to do this from the last week of September to the second decade of October. In spring, you can transplant before buds begin to bloom.They awaken with the first rays of the spring sun.
The plant prefers loam or sandwich. Planted honeysuckle seedlings need lowland swampy and cool areas. It is advised to plant in places where all the plants freeze in winter. If the soil is acid there, you can add chalk or dolomite flour. Although honeysuckle can grow on any soil.
Roots before planting are shortened, leaving up to 30 cm.
The depth of the pit for planting depends on the composition of the soil. If it is light, it will be 30 cm, and 15 cm is sufficient for heavy and wet. The fact is that on such soils almost the entire root system is close to the surface. Pits for planting digging with a diameter of 1 m, the distance between them is 2.5-3 m. If the climate is not hot and humid, then it can be planted at a distance of 5 m. It is recommended to plant currants between them, which lives much less. At first, she will dominate the plot, and when she is old, she is removed, and honeysuckle gets extra space to grow.
Organic fertilizers are applied. Mixing them with the top layer of earth, laid on the bottom of a mound. On it straighten the roots of the bush and cover the rest of the soil. Very good to make the top layer of the forest sod soil (10 cm).
Water, mulch the tree trunk leaves.
Honeysuckle in the first 3 years of life grows slowly, so it does not need special care. The layer of mulch needs to be constantly monitored. In regions with a humid climate, it can be a couple of centimeters, in hot - up to 20 cm. Special attention should be paid to watering. Immediately after planting, you need to water every day or every other day before rooting. The shrub enters fruiting early. During the ripening of the crop, it must be watered, otherwise the berries will have a bitter taste. Over time, pour a bucket of water. A layer of mulch will trap moisture and prevent weeds from growing.
Adult bushes are transplanted after harvest, but before the onset of autumn. By winter, they should be well rooted. Mostly tolerates honeysuckle transplant. Conditions for successful rooting - soil mulching, intensive and regular watering.
Feed honeysuckle start from the third year of life, usually organic fertilizers. In the autumn make a mixture of compost and wood ash. You can add superphosphate. In the spring, before the appearance of the leaves, fertilize urea. In the summer, the bushes are fed with a solution of mullein.
Honeysuckle fruits ripen very early.Depending on the region, this is the end of May - the last week of June. In many varieties they fall down themselves. Therefore, they are collected after the acquisition of blue. Although they become ripe a week later. Rip them very carefully so as not to bruise.
Berries quickly lose their appearance. Therefore, they are treated very carefully: they are laid in a thin layer, 3-4 cm, they are not stored in the refrigerator for a long time. They are frozen or mixed with sugar, pre-crushed honeysuckle.
Care and reproduction
Care is summer feeding, watering, treatment from pests. Honeysuckle pruning is carried out with 7-8 years. Honeysuckle fruits are formed on last year's twigs. Therefore, to shorten the young shoots do not need. In the spring, broken shoots and their parts are pruned slightly.
If the bush is very old, pruning honeysuckle is aimed at rejuvenation. To do this, cut out the old branches.
You can cut the honeysuckle bush immediately when planted in the ground, leaving shoots up to 10 cm.
Every year at the end of the summer wood ash is applied to deoxidize the soil.
How to propagate honeysuckle?
- Honeysuckle fruits have a seed size of 2 mm. They can be used for growing new plants, pre-stratified. But this path is long and not very efficient. In this case, the signs of the parents variety will not repeat.
- How to multiply honeysuckle faster? It is more convenient to do this by cuttings. They can be of different types, depending on the possibilities. Green cuttings of honeysuckle are harvested during ripening. Treated with growth accelerator and planted in the greenhouse. Maintain high humidity. Regularly watered.
For reproduction by lignified cuttings, they are harvested in the fall from branches of this year 8 mm thick. Their length should be not less than 15 cm. In the spring they are planted on a bed, leaving two buds on top. You can lightly sprinkle them on the ground. Cover with a film and watered. A month later, the cuttings rooted.
The combined stalk is cut from a branch last year with a young sprout. From the old leave only the heel. Deepen 5 cm and cover with film. Water 2 times a day until the development of the tops. This indicates rooting.
- How to propagate honeysuckle layers? The branch is bent down, pinned with metal pins, sprinkled with earth for 3-5 cm. Periodically watered. In the fall transplanted to a permanent place.
- How to multiply honeysuckle by dividing the bush? This can be done with a plant from 6 to 15 years. It is dug, cut into pieces using a secateur, disinfected and planted separately.
Honeysuckle is usually resistant to major diseases.It is damaged by three dozen pests, among which sawyers, aphids, false guards, and false mites. They fight with the help of drugs "Konfidor", "Fitoverm".
Among the diseases are powdery mildew, from which you can get rid with the help of "Fitosporin", olive blotch and fungal infections (blackening and drying of branches, shedding of leaves ahead of time).