How to treat sinusitis? Signs and treatment of sinusitis in adults and children
The diagnosis of "sinusitis" met in many life. The term is used to designate such inflammation, which is triggered by an infection and affects the mucous membrane near the sinuses. In some cases, sinusitis causes the fungus. Sometimes it's bacteria, viruses. There is also allergic sinusitis, triggered by the intolerance of a certain substance.
As a rule, detecting sinusitis is easy. It manifests itself with breathing problems - the flow of air through the nose is difficult. In most patients, an elevated body temperature is noted. With sinusitis, nasal discharge is purulent, serous. Often the projections of the paranasal sinuses bother soreness.
To make an accurate diagnosis (and this may be a left-sided or, for example, bilateral sinusitis or some more rare form), it is necessary to take an X-ray of the affected area.Additionally prescribed ultrasound, computed tomography, MRI. To cope with the disease, take antibiotics, use the possibilities of physiotherapy, do the washing, drainage, injections. Sometimes it is necessary to perform an operation (using an endoscope or a traditional method).
Sinusitis is an inflammation that affects the sinuses. In adulthood, about 0.02% of people encounter this disease, but among children the number of those who had to overcome this unpleasant inflammation is about 0.5%. Usually, sinusitis occurs on the background of another infectious disease. That is actually a complication. There are several varieties (for example, left-sided sinusitis, bilateral). In short, pleasant enough.
Sinusitis is an area of specialization in otolaryngology. If the disease affects the sinus in the jaw above, it is called sinusitis. With the penetration of the infection in the frontal sinuses talk about the front. If the sphenoid sinus is under attack, the disease is classified as sphenoiditis. Finally, ethmoiditis is diagnosed if the ethmoid labyrinth is inflamed.
The disease is dangerous!
The main signs of sinusitis in children and adults - high fever, purulent nasal discharge. Often and quite a headache. In the area of inflammation of the face swells. With the wrong treatment or its absence, complications are possible. Sinusitis provokes inflammatory processes affecting the membrane, the nervous system of the eye, cerebral abscess, meningitis, osteomyelitis.
Where did the attack come from?
In total, our respiratory system is equipped with seven sinuses connected to the nasal cavity by passages. Through the strokes in the normal functioning of all the tissues of the sinus are regularly cleaned. In violation of this process, the secret produced by the tissues stagnates in the organ, which provokes inflammation and causes sinusitis.
Sometimes the reason lies in the deformations of the structures inside the nose, which leads to blockage of the anastomosis. Very often, the disease is provoked by viruses, infections. The inflammatory process leads to swelling of the mucous membrane, at the same time the glands produce more secretion than in a healthy state. The fistulas narrow, the secret blocks them, optimal conditions are created for the development of pathology.
No air no life
When the natural ventilation of the respiratory system is disturbed, the tissues experience oxygen starvation, which is superimposed on the abundance of stagnant secretion. Conditions, whatever one may say, are optimal for pathogenic flora to form, and “bacteria” are added to the infection “to the company”.
The level of development of the disease (which, by the way, directly depends on how to treat sinusitis) is determined by how virulent the microbes that provoked the pathology are. The use of antibiotics leads to increased drug resistance of microorganisms. This significantly complicates the process of eliminating the disease.
Fungi and sinusitis
The spread of sinusitis caused by fungal infection has been growing in recent years. Doctors explain this by the habit of the population to treat any ailment with antimicrobial agents, which helps microorganisms to adapt to drugs. And at the same time disrupts the normal balance of microflora within the body.
Antibiotics cause mycosis. In this case, the initial stage of the disease can be triggered by a completely different reason, and the fungus “connects” later.For example, the mucosa swells due to a drug, accompanies accidental inhalation of a chemical component or even cold air.
Allergy as the root cause
Statistics show that most people with allergies are allergic people, as well as people with low levels of immunity. Allergy provokes vasomotor rhinitis, in which the mucous membrane swells. And this is a cyclical process: it is repeated time after time. Up to 80% of chronic cases of sinusitis are recorded in people prone to allergies.
How to treat sinusitis?
Having diagnosed the disease, doctors first of all direct efforts to eliminate painful sensations. The next step is to identify the source of inflammation and fight it. The last stage is the restoration of the normal activity of the sinuses, including the control of their cleansing, until this process is fully restored.
To the outflow of secretion produced by the glands to normal, it is necessary to use specialized drugs, narrowing the vessels. They also help to cope with swelling. The most famous and effective drugs for sinusitis:
Scary but effective
Quite often, especially if antibiotics do not give a positive effect on sinusitis in adults, a special method is used. Which one Sinus evacuation method. Two sterile catheters are placed in the nasal passages. In one of them send an antiseptic composition, which is sucked away by the second catheter. It helps to remove mucus, pus, clean the nasal weed and disinfect it.
Antibiotics to help people
Antibacterial drugs for diseases provoked by bacteria provide irreplaceable help. True, there are no such magic pills, the reception of which for one or two times will completely put on his feet. If it was decided to use antibiotics for sinusitis in adults, you will first have to clear the sinuses, for which they will open and remove the accumulated secretions.
If the disease is viral, antimicrobial drugs should not be used. The effectiveness of their use will be zero, but the chance of occurrence of complications increases markedly due to the suppression of immunity and impaired healthy microflora composition. In fact, the incorrect use of antibiotics does not just not cure sinusitis, but turns it into a chronic disease.This should be remembered if it was decided to treat sinusitis at home. Few people know how to do this, and often people simply choose the strongest antibiotic available.
Acute sinusitis treatment
If the acute form of the disease is diagnosed, first use antihistamines in combination with absorbable. With the right choice of medications prevent the appearance of adhesions. If the disease is triggered by an allergy, it is treated in the same way as an acute inflammatory process. Usually actively resorted to methods of physiotherapy.
If conservative therapy does not give good results, the question “how to treat sinusitis” takes on a different hue. Probably have to operate. It sounds pretty scary, but in practice such surgical interventions have been carried out for more than a decade. They are safe and effective, although they have a number of controversial points. The operation restores the ability to cleanse the sinuses by natural mechanisms. When polyps are detected, they are eliminated with a laser. If the nasal septum is deformed, restore the anatomically correct shape.In addition to the classical method of operation, the endoscope is used as a more benign option.
If the disease is expressed rather weakly, provoked by a cold, rhinitis, then the treatment is much easier. Doctors recommend to spend a few days in a comfortable environment - at home, not overworking and not nervous, avoiding cold air. As a rule, this is enough to eliminate the symptoms if the disease is just beginning.
To make the nose breathe normally again, the sense of self is restored, it is recommended to drink plenty of warm liquid (but not coffee), as well as indulge yourself with warm baths. Quite effective at this stage of the disease inhalation with sinusitis. Use a variety of essential oils. Especially popular are mint, pine, and eucalyptus. When the temperature rises, the therapy is supplemented with antipyretic agents and anti-inflammatory medicines.
Sinus vasoconstrictor drugs
In the weak form of the disease, it is this group of medicines that is most often used. The edema passes, breathing is restored, the sinuses are ventilated again. This means that conditions that are comfortable for the development of pathogenic flora are eliminated, and complications can be avoided. Gradually, the disease itself disappears.There is a negative point - vasoconstrictor drugs can be used no more than a week. If the symptoms of sinusitis persist and the treatment has not yielded tangible results, it's time to go to the doctor. Apparently, the disease has passed into a more severe form. When treating a child, preference should be given to drugs whose active ingredient is Xylometazoline.
It is advisable to consult a doctor with sinusitis symptoms in time and entrust the treatment to doctors who know exactly what to use and when. If the disease develops in an acute form, antibiotics will (most likely) have to fight it. And they can be used only on the advice and control of the attending doctor. Usually prescribed:
The most famous names resorted to, planning how to treat sinusitis in each case:
The course of taking the listed medications is about two weeks. It is unacceptable to stop taking the drug ahead of time, as the disease may return. And the microorganisms that provoked it will become resistant to drugs.
Chronic sinusitis and not only
If the disease has become chronic, treatment usually involves taking a course of antimicrobial drugs from the group of protected penicillins. On sale the most famous name of this group of medicines - "Augmetin". If the disease is severe, antibiotics will have to take a month or even a half. The process is necessarily monitored by a doctor: the doctor chooses the means, the dose, the duration of the course, regularly checks the effectiveness of therapy.
Many experts agree that with chronic, acute sinusitis, the therapy with Sumamed gives good results, the active component of which is azithromycin. Such therapy lasts only three days. The most successful choice is in the case of mycoplasmal disease, often affecting children and resistant to antimicrobial therapy.
The practice of using highly effective antibiotics acting locally is quite widespread. On sale they are represented by the trade names "Bioparox", "Fuzofungin". This treatment option is only suitable for the acute form and should be monitored by a doctor.
Pierce or cut
Further.Treatment of sinusitis by piercing has been known for quite some time. It is used in cases of acute, chronic disease. Pierce the area near the inflamed sinuses, pumping out excess mucus. It helps to restore normal ventilation.
In some cases, the operation does not lead to the expected result. Then resort to more active intervention. Usually, additional operations are prescribed if a complication develops - meningitis or another serious health disorder.
Traditional medicine against sinusitis
Since the disease is spread quite widely, popular wisdom has invented a wide variety of means to combat it. There are fairly simple options, there are more difficult recipes. One of the most innocuous, safe and effective options is potatoes. Tubers boil, remove from heat, drain water, knead. The head is tilted over the saucepan, covered with a towel on top and breathe hot steam. Be careful: do not burn yourself! The dry heat released from the potato helps to narrow the vessels, which restores breathing in a short time.
Another effective recipe is based on the use of potassium permanganate and iodine.In a glass of pure water (temperature - about 20 degrees) add three drops of potassium permanganate, iodine, carefully stir the liquid. The mixture is used to rinse the nose.
Products: effectiveness with sinusitis
You can get rid of this unpleasant disease with the help of ordinary radish. Root grate, then squeeze the juice and filter it. The fluid is regularly instilled into the nose every day: three drops on one nostril. The procedure is repeated three times a day.
Another effective recipe: in a glass of clean water (about 20 degrees), dilute 1 tsp. sea salt, iodine (5 cap.). Mix thoroughly. The tool is used to treat the nasal cavity as follows: through the nostril, the solution is drawn in and out through the mouth.
Onions - a remedy for all ailments
The benefits of onions are known to people for a long time. Is not an exception, and sinusitis, in which this product is used in food to improve immunity, but at the same time used as a drug. The bulb is cleaned, crushed, kneaded, until it turns gruel. Boil water, pour onion porridge with boiling water. The mixture is stirred, gradually cooling, enter 1 tbsp. l honeyStir once more and allow to infuse for several hours, then filter. The resulting liquid is used to wash the nasal cavity.
Fir and Hypericum against sinusitis
It is believed that these plants give a good result even with a chronic course of the disease. Fir is used in the form of an essential oil (can be purchased at a pharmacy). Every day at home you can do inhalation, breathing in fir oil with steam. Only one pair of drops is added to one capacity of the inhaler - do not overdo it. Steam breathe, while the coniferous aroma is felt.
St. John's wort is used to wash the sinuses. On a teaspoon of dry herbs, you must take a glass of water, boil it and brew the plant, then allow the infusion to cool. However, you can not only wash your nose with a hunter, but also drink it. True, they prepare it for drinking a little differently. For 20 g of dried plants boil a glass of water, pour, close and allow to cool. This glass is divided into three parts, drunk per day (respectively, in three doses). The treatment lasts 12 days.