Italian composer Rossini Gioacchino: biography, creativity
Gioacchino Rossini is considered to be one of the greatest composers in history. His famous opera "The Barber of Seville" is remembered, probably, by every person familiar with the music. This article will detail the life of Gioacchino Rossini, as well as his most famous musical works.
About Rossini has been written many very different books and publications. The most common among them is the biographical work of Elena Bronfin of 1973. This book describes in detail all those events that, one way or another, were related to the life and work of the composer Rossini. Elena Bronfin describes in detail the childhood years of little Gioacchino, tracing his path to the creative peak.
Gioacchino Antonio Rossini was born February 29, 1792 in the small Italian town of Pesaro. Gioacchino's parents were musicians.Her father played wind instruments, and her mother had a beautiful voice with an expressive soprano. Naturally, parents tried to make little Gioacchino fall in love with music.
The careless childhood of Gioachino was overshadowed by the French Revolution. In addition, the future composer himself, according to many sources, was a very lazy and even naughty boy. Parents saved the situation on time, giving Gioacchino to study with a local pastor. It was the priest who taught Rossini all the necessary compositional lessons.
The first creative endeavors of young Gioacchino
In the early 19th century, the Rossini family moved to Lugo. It was in this city that the young Gioacchino gave his first opera concert. Possessing a very high treble, the future great composer aroused non-sick interest among the public.
Some sources indicate that Rossini began his first works as a composer by the age of 12. In those small sonatas written by a very young Gioacchino, one can trace very literate inclusions of operatic tendencies.
Great importance for future creative manifestations of Gioacchino had a friendship with the famous Italian tenor Mombelli.Together they wrote musical numbers, composed the libretto and developed theatrical productions. In 1808, the composer Rossini did write the whole mass. It was a male choir, accompanied by a bright accompaniment of organ and orchestra.
About the early creative period
In 1810, the fate of Gioacchino radically changed: he was noticed by two famous Italian musicians at that time: Moranli and Morolly. This couple wrote a letter to Rossini, in which she expressed a desire to see young Gioacchino in Venice. Beginner composer immediately agreed. The task of Gioacchino was to write a musical theme for a theatrical libretto. The statement was called "Marriage on the bill." This work was the brightest debut of Rossini as a composer.
The main quality that the composer Rossini had was incredible speed and ease of writing music. This was noted by many contemporaries of the musician: Gioacchino seemed to know and understand a long time ago how exactly this or that composition should be built. At the same time, the musician himself, according to many sources, led a very erratic and idle lifestyle.In Venice, he walked a lot and had fun, but he always had time to write the necessary order by the deadline.
"The Barber of Seville"
In 1813, the composer Rossini wrote a truly grand composition that turned his whole life upside down - this is “Italian in Algeria”. Excellent music, deep content of the libretto, bright patriotic moods, which the work asked - all this had the best effect on the future career of the composer.
However, the musician started something more ambitious. The monumental two-act opera that would become the pearl of Italian music is what Gioacchino Rossini wanted. The Barber of Seville has become such an opera. The work was staged by the famous 19th century comedy Beaumarchais.The main feature of the work of Gioacchino on the work was, again, incredible ease. Written in less than a month, The Barber of Seville was the first work by Rossini, famous outside Italy. So, an amazing incident occurred with Gioacchino in the Austrian Empire: it was there that the composer met Beethoven himself, who spoke positively about the "barber".
New ideas Rossini
Giaacchino's main specialization was comedy. The composer Rossini composed musical themes specifically for light, comedic librettos. However, in 1817, the musician went beyond the comic genre, which was so often associated with the name of Gioacchino Rossini. The opera "The Thieving Magpie" was one of the first works of the composer, which was rather a bit dramatic. The opera Othello, written in 1816, was a Shakespearean tragedy.
Gioacchino increasingly overgrown with ideas and new ideas. The most important milestone on the creative path of Gioacchino was the monumental opera-series, called "Moses in Egypt". Rossini worked on this work for a month and a half. The premiere of "Moses" was held in Naples, where it was accompanied by great success.
The composer Rossini moved further and further away from the "light" genres, composing heavier and more monumental works. Such famous historical series as “Magomet II”, “Zelmira”, “Semiramis”, had a great success both in Italy and abroad.
Vienna, London and Paris
Austrian, English and Parisian periods played a big role in the life of Rossini.The reason for sending the composer to Vienna was the resounding success of the opera Zelmira. In Austria, the composer first encountered mass unfavorable criticism: many German composers believed that any Rossini opera did not deserve the success that accompanied Gioacchino in almost all of Europe. However, among the haters was not Beethoven. Already completely deafened Ludwig carefully followed the work of Rossini, reading his music, in the literal sense, on musical paper. Beethoven showed great interest in Gioacchino; He was extremely complimentary about almost all his works.
In 1823, the composer received an invitation to the Royal London Theater. Here was played the opera Rossini "Italian in Algeria" and some of his other works. It was in England that Gioacchino acquired both loyal admirers and fierce enemies. Rossini received even more hatred in Paris: envious musicians tried in every possible way to defame the composer. For Rossini, the times of sharp controversy with critics have come.
Almost all musical figures of the 19th, 20th or 21st centuries speak of one thing: Rossini "raised from his knees" the unusually low level of musical creativity in England and France.Inspired by the works of Joacchino, the musicians finally began to show themselves, giving the world more and more beautiful things.
Getting closer to the creative top
In the late twenties of the 19th century, Rossini agreed to work as head of the Italian Opera Theater in Paris. However, he stayed in this position for a short time: after a couple of years, Rossini’s work became widely known throughout Europe, and therefore the composer decided to accept the title of “general singing inspector and composer his majesty in France”. Gioacchino received an honorary position under the king.
In Paris, Rossini wrote another musical masterpiece called "Journey to Reims, or the Golden Line Hotel." This opera was played at the coronation of Charles X. However, the work did not have success with the general public.
After the "Travel" Rossini engaged in the development of the monumental opera "Magomet II". This heroic and tragic work was distinguished by many innovative elements that many critics could not fail to notice. Next were written "Moses in Egypt" and "The Siege of Corinth." All these works had the strongest influence on the young French composers: Aubert, Boaldier, Herold and others.
Rossini, working at once in two directions of French opera - comic and tragic, conceived the staging of a great work, completely original and innovative. Something new, unlike any previous work, was what Gioacchino Rossini wanted. The works of the past years were considered innovative, but only in some places. That is why the composer began to compose an opera about the brave arrow Wilhelm - the hero of an old Swiss legend.
The main feature of the work was the borrowing of elements of the local Swiss flavor: folk tunes, combined with Italian classical songs, constituted an unusually original opera. Not surprisingly, “Wilhelm” everyone was looking forward to. The product was in development for about six months. The premiere of this four-stroke opera was held in 1828.
The reaction of both the public and the critics was very cold. The work seemed to many tedious, complex and simply boring. In addition, the composition lasted about 4 hours. Opera almost no one attended. The leadership of the theater, trying to somehow save the situation, greatly reduced the work and began to submit it in a distorted form. Of course, Rossini did not like it.He left the theater, promising himself never to continue the activities of the composer.
However, the opera was outraged by no means all. Many beginning composers saw something amazing and beautiful in "Wilhelm". Over time, the work still acquired the status of a masterpiece, one of the iconic operas by Gioacchino Rossini.
Biography of the former composer
Gioacchino "stopped" at the age of 37 years. Behind him, about 40 operas have remained, tremendous fame and deafening success. The rapid development of romanticism in Europe also influenced Rossini’s departure from art.
Having been in oblivion for several years, Gioacchino nevertheless proceeded to the rare writing of small overtures. However, almost nothing remained of the previous intensity. Having moved to Italy, the composer became interested in teaching. Rossini supervised the Bologna Lyceum, whose pupil he himself was in his childhood. It was thanks to Gioacchino that musical education received its rapid and qualitative development.
In 1855, Rossini again decided to return to Paris. It is here that he spends the last 13 years of his life.
What could Giochkino Rossini captivate? Overtures, suites and operas are already left behind. The once great composer decided to firmly move away from writing music.True, he broke his promise only a few times. So, in 1863, the “Little solemn Mass” was written - a rather well-known essay to this day.
Gioacchino was an exquisite chef. Witty Rossini invented an incredible amount of a wide variety of dishes. The composer was also a big wine lover. His cellar just burst with a wide variety of wines, of all types and varieties. However, cooking ruined Rossini. The former composer began to suffer from obesity and stomach ailments.
Death of the composer
No one else in Paris was famous for such a celebrity as Gioachino Rossini. The Barber of Seville, William Tell - the author of all these works, although retired, enjoyed great success in France.
Rossini arranged grandiose receptions. The most famous personalities and politicians sought the opportunity to visit them. Sometimes Rossini conducted while still attracting the attention of the European music community. The personality of Gioacchino was truly great: Wagner, Franz Liszt, Saint-Saens and many other greatest composers of the world communicated with him.
The composer died on November 13, 1868.The composer bequeathed all his property to the Italian town of Pesaro, the place where the musician was born.
Gioacchino left behind about 40 major operas and even more overtures with small compositions. His first real opera, The Marriage Bill, was written by Rossini at the age of 18. It should be noted, and another great work created in 1817 - the opera "Cinderella". Gioacchino Rossini wrote a fun and easy comedy based on the famous fairy tale. The opera enjoyed great success both with critics and with the general public.
In addition to operas, Gioacchino was engaged in writing a variety of psalms, masses, edges and hymns. Rossini’s legacy is truly great. His inventive and innovative style has been studied by many composers for many years. Rossini’s music remains relevant today.