Juniper: planting and care. Varieties, types. Breeding
Every person who sees a juniper will call this plant amazing. It is beautiful, graceful, looks great in landscape design. Thanks to these properties, juniper has won extraordinary popularity among designers of various varieties.
Planting and caring for this plant does not require special knowledge, so it has spread not only in park urban landscapes, but also in private gardens and house parks.
The juniper foliage looks like pine needles, it has a resinous smell and emits phytoncides that clean the air from the pathogenic microbes around the plant.
The uniqueness of the plant also gives the fact that it has the properties to heal those who are present nearby: people gain mental balance, experience peace and tranquility. Also, the plant relieves headaches and normalizes sleep. Here is such a useful juniper.
Planting and care, varieties and types of plants, how to multiply and grow it - read about it below.
Juniper is a long-lived evergreen coniferous plant, which is presented in the form of shrubs and trees belonging to the family Cypress.
Trees of juniper are capable of reaching 30 m in height, have a pyramidal or cone-shaped crown, consisting of scaly or needle-shaped needles.
Shrub-like plants, as a rule, grow to a height of up to half a meter. They have spreading and flexible branches, which due to this form a dense and luxuriant coniferous covering.
Juniper, the description of which can be found in many specialized sources, originally comes from northern forests, but now gardeners are given the opportunity to grow it anywhere.
Medicines are made from the fruits of this plant for the treatment of diseases of the kidneys and urinary system. Broths of juniper needles with fruits bring relief from skin diseases such as eczema, dermatitis and others. In addition, the plant is great as a spicy seasoning for some dishes.
Juniper (plant species are numerous - there are about 70) spread throughout the entire northern hemisphere of the planet.
Juniper flowers are also very unusual: female are round light green bumps, and male ones look like earrings with several stamens. In June, the plant blooms, and in August-September, the fruiting period begins.
If you break a juniper cone, you can see that it is filled with a soft brown substance used for medicinal purposes.
In April-May, the male types of juniper throw out spikelets of yellow color, while the female ones produce green nipples. The fruits of the plant are round-shaped cones up to one centimeter in diameter with three seeds inside. At first they are green, and when ripe, become black and purple and have a wax gray bloom. The berries on trial are slightly bitter, with a pleasant spicy aroma.
Varieties and species of juniper tree
Juniper, whose species are very numerous, is often found in urban areas and in private gardens. This is due to climatic conditions: gardeners prefer to grow unpretentious cold-resistant varieties.
The first group includes tall tree varieties.Vertical crowns of evergreen trees are suitable for decorating urban landscapes.
The most popular among gardeners and designers are the following varieties from the first group:
- Juniper ordinary. This is a species with fragrant wood up to ten meters high with a dense crown, shaped like a cone or egg. The growth of its trunk is very slow, so the tree lives up to 200 years. This species will withstand light shading, it is frost-resistant, relatively unpretentious.
- Juniper Chinese Strict. It is also a tall tree with a conic crown and a tall tree with green-blue needles. Loves sunny open spaces.
- Red cedar. This is a fast-growing tall tree that can reach a thirty-meter height. Juniper has a narrow ovoid trunk with a wide crown and green needle-shaped needles. Easy to care, resistant to pests and diseases.
- Juniper forest. The common northern cypress, forest juniper, planting and caring for it are extremely simple, as the tree is very unpretentious, but it loves the sunlight and does not tolerate shading. Prefers to grow in a mixture of sand and peat.
The tree group also includes low, rather beautiful species of junipers, reaching from two to three meters in height. These include: pyramidal juniper, Hibernik juniper, Horstmann juniper, rock juniper.
The second group consists of shrubs of the following popular species:
- Juniper scaly Meyeri. Evergreen shrub, distinguished by the elegance of the crown and the originality of the color of the needles, which has silver-blue tips. He loves the sun, so it fades in the shade.
- Juniper creeping horizontal. It has a second name - prostrate. It is a dioecious creeping shrub, has elongated branches with a bluish-silvery shade with needles of scaly or needle-like shape. With the onset of frost, the crown becomes almost purple.
- Juniper Cossack. Low-growing view up to 1 m in height, with obliquely spreading branches with dark green scaly needles with a sharp aroma. Very poisonous!
- Juniper Repanda. The forty-centimeter height dwarf shrub, reaching two meters in diameter. It has a cushion symmetrical creeping crown.Shrub photophilous, undemanding to the soil, frost-resistant.
It is important to remember: each species is poisonous in different ways, so it’s better to work with them with gloves on.
Juniper: planting and care
The best option for planting are young seedlings that are grown in special containers. This is done to ensure that plants grow faster. At a young age, they tolerate transplant more easily.
To transplant an adult juniper, for example, such a tall one like Chinese juniper, requires certain experience and skills. As a rule, plants are grown in open ground, and before sale they are dug up and sold to customers along with an earthy ball. It is wrapped in a sackcloth dipped in water. The second sale option is together with a container in which the plant has already taken root and has taken root.
The best time for planting juniper is spring (April-May) or autumn (October). Saplings that are sold in containers can be planted at any time, since their root system is protected.
For planting choose an open sunny place, which is a prerequisite for the decorative juniper.In conditions of strong shading (under the wall), the plant will fade and may begin to wilt.
Around the stem of the plant, mulching with a mixture of peat and coniferous wood chips is necessary.
After planting is completed, the seedling is watered abundantly under the root with water.
Juniper can be propagated in three generally accepted options: cuttings, seeds and layering.
The best temperature conditions for rooting are:
- 16-19 ºC - before the buds bloom, and 23-26 ºC - after that;
- wet soil and systematic spraying;
- moderately diffused light.
Cuttings such as juniper creeping should be rooted under the slope, and columnar varieties should be rooted vertically.
Layers can only propagate grades of creeping juniper during the growing season.
To grow non-decorative species from seeds, seed is first stratified: in the fall it is sown in boxes, then taken out under the snow until May, and then sown in open ground.
To collect the seed material, pineal fruits are opened, the seeds are cleaned and dipped in sulfuric acid for thirty minutes, then washed thoroughly.
You can receive plant cuttings all year round, but it is better to choose spring for this. To begin with, they are planted for rooting in a greenhouse, and in May or June they are transplanted into open ground under a film. If the transplant occurs in February-March, then transplanted into the greenhouse.
In order to graft juniper, reproduction should be carried out in the following sequence:
- In the middle of spring, 10-year-old cuttings 10 cm long with a piece of old wood are cut from a ten-year-old plant; from the bottom, they are cleaned from needles by 4 cm.
- The bark is carefully trimmed with sharp scissors, cuttings for a day are placed in a growth stimulator, for example, "Heteroauxin".
- Prepared in equal parts peat-sand mixture planted cuttings under the film and pritenyayut.
- Within 40 days the root system develops, it is better to spray the cuttings with water than to water.
- In the middle of summer, planting material is planted in the ground, for the winter it is necessary to cover it with laparnik.
- Restoration will last 2.5-3 years, after which mature seedlings can be transplanted to a permanent place.
It is almost impossible to grow ornamental species from seeds; it is better to propagate such juniper cuttings.
Rooted plants do not require special care, but you should follow some rules:
- In spring, the plant should be fed with a nitroammofosca at the rate of 35 g per 1 m.2.
- Pristvolny circle should be regularly freed from weeds or mulch. The mulch needs to be laid on black geotextiles.
- For wintering, juniper is tied with twine to protect the crown and trunk: the crown may decay from the weight of snow and the decorative effect will be lost.
- Species with a crown of blue, yellow and variegated need to cover from the spring sun. To do this, they must be tied with a spunbond or covered with a green net.
- Juniper requires timely careful pruning, during which damaged and dry branches are removed.
- Only young saplings in their first year need shelter for the winter.
If you do not follow these rules, the gardener will have to observe how juniper diseases develop.
The distance between plants depends on the size and type of juniper, but should not be less than half a meter for medium-sized and not less than a meter for high.
The depth of the pit depends on the size of the root system and the earthen coma.It should be 2.5 times the coma and have a depth of up to 70 cm.
At the bottom, a drainage of brick and sand bout with a layer of 20 cm is always arranged. The roots are filled with soil mixture of sod soil, peat soil and sand in a ratio of 2: 1: 1.
Young seedlings require regular moderate watering, and adult plants have sufficient drought resistance. Therefore, they need to be watered up to three times a month depending on the weather. Also in the heat of juniper sprayed in the morning and evening twice in a decade.
The irrigation rate is calculated based on the age and size of the plant, but on average is 10-30 liters for an adult juniper.
Diseases and pests
Juniper diseases are as follows:
- mushroom rust;
- gray mold;
- Schutte disease.
Among the dangerous pests are the following:
- juniper mining mole;
- spider mite;
- juniper schitovka;
If the struggle is started on time, then the plant can be saved even before complete defeat.
Against rust, in which the juniper turns yellow, a solution of arceride in the proportion of 50 g per 10 l of water works well, it is necessary to spray four times with a break of ten days.
When attacking aphids, the plant should be sprayed with "Fitoverm" at the rate of 2 g per 1 liter of water twice with an interval of two weeks.
Against the moth, use "Decis" in the proportion of 2.5 g per 10 liters, the spraying scheme is similar to the previous one.