Khrushchev planning and options for its change
Since 1957, the USSR began to build houses of a new type. This happened after the adoption of the law providing for the elimination of excesses in the architecture and design of buildings. Such houses were popularly called “Khrushchev’s” (from the name of N. S. Khrushchev), as well as “Khrushchev’s” (due to the disproportionate and inconvenient planning of rooms, narrow spans of corridors and corridors, thin walls, and therefore nightmarish sound insulation) . In this article we will tell you what was the layout of apartments in Khrushchev, consider the typical series of these houses, try to identify the main disadvantages and advantages of these buildings.
Typical series of Khrushchev
Let's look at the main characteristics of the apartments, in addition, we define the features of all the series of these houses, which were built over 27 years. It should be noted that Khrushchev originally intended to be used as temporary housing. Then the operational life of the house was 25-50 years. But even today people live in such houses.The disadvantages of buildings include terrible insulation and sound insulation (it is cold in winter and in the apartment it is too hot in summer). The layout of the rooms in the Khrushchev and the porch is also not always successful: a small kitchen, narrow corridors, and very often a lack of an elevator and garbage chute.
The advantages of these houses include the relatively low cost of apartments. The main advantages of these houses are also the developed infrastructure around them. Mostly near Khrushchev there are schools, kindergartens, shops and there is an excellent transport interchange. If the purchase of an apartment is not enough money, then Khrushchev is not an option. Today, such buildings in the cities of our country are subject to demolition, which means that their owners receive a new apartment in return, or redevelopment and reconstruction.
Immediately it should be said that this was one of the most popular series of Khrushchev in the USSR. The houses were built in the years 1960-1967. This is a house of panels with five floors, sometimes you can also find 3 and 4-storey buildings. Each apartment has balconies and additional storage. At the same time elevators are not provided here, and the tenants of the building have to go down and climb stairs, which is very difficult for people of age, as well as for families with little ones.This Khrushchev layout provides for the same type - in the apartments bathrooms combined, there is no common garbage disposal in the entrance, and at the site the number of apartments is 4. 2.5 m - the height of the ceilings, the kitchen area - 5.8 m². There were 1-3-room apartments of standard layout.
The houses of this series were built up in 1963-1967. These were also panel buildings. Such a layout of Khrushchev (the photo is presented in this article) implies a ceiling height of 2.54 m, in each apartment there is a balcony, a bathroom unit, and the absence of a garbage chute and an elevator. The kitchen area is slightly larger than in the previous series - 6.2 m². On the site there are also 4 apartments - 1-3-room apartments. In addition to balconies, the apartments have additional built-in wardrobes and pantries.
This series was built in 1958-1964. The layout of Khrushchev in this case was slightly modified in different years of construction. For example, in the houses of 1958 in 1-room apartments the living room had an area of 18.6 m², and a year later it was reduced to 18.2 m², after another year the area of the room was 17.7 m². And in all types of these apartments, the area of living rooms varied upward and downward.While the kitchen area was constant - 5.8 m², as, in fact, the height of the ceilings was 2.5 meters everywhere. The houses were brick, the bathrooms were combined, and each apartment had a balcony, built-in wardrobes and a pantry.
This is the latest series, which was built in the years 1959-1969. These are houses from blocks also with a ceiling height of 2.5 m, but the kitchen layout in the Khrushchev was more successful - with an increased area of 6.6-7.7 m². Each apartment had balconies (in addition to the 1st floor). In the early versions of the houses, the bathrooms are separate, then combined, the garbage chute is also missing. The advantages of apartments in this series include the possibility of redevelopment, while the disadvantages are adjacent rooms in apartments.
Terms of redevelopment two-room Khrushchev
If the layout of Khrushchev does not suit you, and you would like to change it, you need to know which walls are carriers in the apartment, while you can’t touch them by current legislation: you can make doorways in them, demolish or otherwise change the original position.
Deciding on an inconsistent redevelopment of Khrushchev and getting rid of the bearing wall, you risk that the consequences of this will be dire.Often the overlap simply collapses, sometimes it even leads to victims.
You can independently identify the bearing wall, if you look at its thickness. These walls are always much thicker than others, which are the usual division of rooms. Basically, the bearing wall is not less than 50 centimeters thick, while all others reach 15-20 cm in thickness.
If you still need to carry out such a procedure as the redevelopment of Khrushchev, and in the supporting wall there is a great desire to make an opening, you can get out of the situation, but you have to try hard. It is necessary according to the established norms to fix the upper part of the opening with reinforced concrete or metal blocks. The second permissible variant of the opening, which relates directly to the bearing wall, is to replace the arch of the balcony block.
So, if you are not satisfied with the layout of the Khrushchev, you can remove the wall between the rooms (if there are 3 rooms in the apartment) and get a large comfortable space, or make a two-room small one-room apartment, but large. To remove a wall between rooms, if it is not a carrier, it will not be difficult.
You can also make each room a separate entrance. This is done by lengthening the hallway. With this option, often have to sacrifice square meters of the room. In addition, there is the option of bookmarks in one place of the opening and transfer it to another wall or to another place.
Combining the room and the kitchen is a popular option for creating a stylish modern interior. Once there was an opinion that the kitchen can be isolated from other rooms, but at the present moment this is not the only approach. Often, the kitchen is also combined with the living room. In this case, it can be incomplete or complete combination, everything depends on the design idea. In the first case, there is a small opening between the room and the kitchen, an arch or a bar counter is installed. The boundaries between the two zones, with complete separation, remain entirely visual.
It is also possible to change the size of the bathroom. Often in the two-room Khrushchev there is a joint bathroom. If there is a desire to accommodate a shower stall, washing machine into the space, you will have to pick up a few square meters from the kitchen or hallway (although this solution is not possible in any apartment - it depends strongly only on its layout).
Much more daring solution is a complete redevelopment.In this situation, the walls are not completely removed, not bearing. In this case, the owners get a completely new free space, which can be divided into functional zones completely at will. If there is no experience in construction work, the project of redevelopment should be addressed to professionals. It is important to think about a huge number of technical issues.
These are non-carrier walls in the apartment. If we talk about Khrushchev, there they are mostly made of blocks, periodically made of brick, and there are also plasterboard walls. When redevelopment in the construction of other walls of the simplest material is drywall. Especially for additional sound insulation of this modern material it is necessary to use mineral wool. It should be noted that working with drywall is quick and easy. It takes a little time and financial costs will be lower.
What to look for
It is necessary to look at the balcony when redeveloping a 2-room Khrushchev. If it is combined with the rest of the rooms, this will help to expand the space a little.If the area allows, you can turn the balcony into a full-fledged study.
In this redevelopment Khrushchev may be partial or complete. Regardless of the selected repair option, you need to carefully and not just think about every little thing. Only a careful approach to work is able to get a functional and comfortable space.