Marshal Shaposhnikov Boris Mikhailovich: biography, awards and interesting facts
Boris Mikhailovich Shaposhnikov, whose biography is described in this article, is a well-known state and military Soviet leader. A talented military leader and theorist. He made a huge contribution to the creation of the USSR Armed Forces.
Marshal Shaposhnikov, whose biography originates in the city of Zlatoust, was born on October 2, 1882, in a family of ordinary employees. His father, Mikhail Petrovich, worked at a distillery. Boris's mother, Pelagia Kuzminichna, worked as a schoolteacher.
The family was large. In addition to Boris, Michael and Pelageya had six more children. After the birth of Boris, the parents with all their children moved to Belebei. Therefore, the teenage years of a teenager were associated with the Urals. At the end of the 19th century the family moved again, this time to Perm.
After school Marshal Shaposhnikov continued his education in several educational institutions.The reason was the frequent travel of parents to other cities. The choice of profession was practical. Military training was free, so Boris chose precisely this direction in order not to burden his parents. At first he studied at the Krasnoufimsk industrial school.
In 1900, Boris wanted to enroll in Alekseevsky (previously there was the Moscow Infantry) technical school. But due to illness, Shaposhnikov could not pass the exams. However, he stubbornly repeated the attempt next year. This time, Boris was enrolled in the Moscow Infantry School. He graduated in 1903, receiving the first category.
Already in his senior year, Boris was promoted to non-commissioned officer thanks to his successful maneuvers in 1902 near Kursk. At the same time, Shaposhnikov was assigned to command a platoon of junior high school students. It was hard. In addition to this additional load, it was necessary to find the time and not to run your own education. After some time he entered the St. Petersburg Imperial Nicholas Academy. He graduated in 1910.
Passion for theater art
Despite the full workload and lack of free time, Boris was able to find a gap and his own spiritual education.Shaposhnikova was very attracted to theatrical art. An important role was played by the growing popularity of Chaliapin, who at that time won the hearts of hundreds. The Stanislavsky Theater was actively developing, delighting the hearts of people with art. Boris Mikhailovich did not remain indifferent to all this.
Service in Tashkent
The future Marshal Shaposhnikov did not go to the academy immediately. After graduating from Moscow University, he was among the best graduates and received the right to choose a place of service. So he ended up in Tashkent as a second lieutenant. Due to the fact that already in a military school he learned to lead a platoon from junior high school students, the work turned out to be familiar to Boris. He never gave relief to the fighters, but he also treated himself sternly.
He came to the unit at exactly 8:30, worked with the soldiers until lunchtime, and then continued his studies until the very evening. Thanks to Shaposhnikov’s demands, recruits quickly learned military wisdom. As a result, the military unit of Boris was recognized as the best in the Tashkent garrison.
In the first year of the officer service, Shaposhnikova noticed the authorities. As a result, Boris was sent to the district headquarters for a couple of months.There he was engaged in the preparation of the mobilization schedule. Then Boris was sent to the district school of Samarkand. There were trained fencing instructors.
In the same educational institution Shaposhnikov learned to stay in the saddle and became a good rider. After graduation, Boris was offered to work constantly in the same place, but he refused because he wanted to get into the Academy of the General Staff. And for admission to it required at least three years of service.
In 1906, Shaposhnikov was elevated to lieutenants, and the following year began preparing for admission to the Academy. Successfully graduated from it and again went to Tashkent. After the Academy, it was required to serve another two years to raise the career ladder.
After all the conditions were met, Boris Mikhailovich chose to transfer to the Western District, to the division. The only vacant post turned out to be the adjutant of the 14th Cavalry Division. She belonged to the Warsaw District. Serving as a captain, Shaposhnikov arrived in Czestochowa in 1912.
At the beginning of the First World War, Shaposhnikov’s division, which he so diligently strengthened and trained, showed excellent stamina in military operations.The fighters restrained enemy pressure and covered the flank of the South-Western Front. The division participated in the Battle of Galicia. Boris Mikhailovich shared with his soldiers all the hardships and difficulties.
In October 1914, Shaposhnikov was contused to the head in a battle near Sochaczew, but the division commander never left his combat post. On the fronts of the First World War, Boris Mikhailovich spent more than three years. Often the offensive of Marshal Shaposhnikov was decisive in victories. Thanks to the skillful command, his division was considered one of the best in the Southwest.
February and October Revolutions
During the February Revolution of 1917, Boris Mikhailovich was already in the rank of colonel and led the Cossack headquarters. In the autumn he became the commander of the Mingrel regiment. The soldiers met the new leader cautiously, but over time the relationship improved. To the question of the regimental committee about the attitude towards the socialist revolution, Boris Mikhailovich answered that he recognized it, and was ready to serve further under new banners. In December, at the congress of the Caucasian division, Shaposhnikov was selected as the commander.
He managed to do a lot in this post until the disease broke him.Boris Mikhailovich had to stay in the hospital for two months. Then he was appointed judicial officer. He was punctual and careful in his duties, and they were very satisfied with their bosses. But Shaposhnikov himself was not satisfied with this position and lifestyle.
In the ranks of the Red Army
Therefore, he decided to join the Red Army. So he was among the volunteers. Joined the ranks of the Red Army in May 1918, Shaposhnikov. This return to the usual life was a new milestone in the fate of the future marshal. Boris Mikhailovich was assigned to the Operational Commander-in-Chief of the Supreme Military Council as an assistant to the head of the department.
In September 1918 the organization ceased to exist. A Revolutionary Military Council was created, becoming the highest military body. Shaposhnikov headed the intelligence department at the Field Headquarters. For several months, his immediate superior was N. I. Podvoisky. Shaposhnikov became his assistant, at the same time learning to assess not only the military, but also the political situation.
In August 1919 he returned to the Field Headquarters, and then was appointed to head the RVS Operational Directorate. At that time he met M.V. Frunze. As a result, for his service, Boris Mikhailovich received in 1921.Order of the Red Banner.
At the Lausanne Conference was a member of the delegation as a military expert. He discussed the regime of the Black Sea straits. For his merits and enormous military experience, future Marshal Shaposhnikov Boris Mikhailovich was appointed in 1925 as commander of the troops of the Leningrad District, a couple of years later - of Moscow. In the period from 1931 to 1939. held positions:
- heads of the Volga military district;
- Commissioner of the Military Academy. Frunze;
- He was a member of the CEC of the All-Union Congress of the USSR of the seventh convocation.
From 1937 to 1939 was a member of the Armed Forces of the country. Then he headed the General Headquarters of the Red Army. After that, he took the post of People's Commissar of Defense and became a member of the leadership of the workers 'and peasants' army. In May 1940, he was already a marshal. Shaposhnikov, unfortunately, could not work for a long time in the General Staff because of his illness.
Since the summer of 1941, Boris Mikhailovich became a permanent adviser to Stalin and again chief of the General Staff. Shaposhnikov was responsible for evacuation plans, developed counter-offenses. After the defeat at Kerch, he lost the post of chief of the General Staff and was sent as deputy head to the People's Commissariat. In 1943became the head of the Higher Military Academy named after Voroshilov.
Boris Mikhailovich was one of the few who not only avoided Stalin’s repressions, but also became his close face. The leader greatly respected Shaposhnikov. He was the only one whom Stalin always called by his patronymic name. In his office, he allowed only Mikhail Mikhailovich to smoke. When talking to him, the leader never raised his voice, and Shaposhnikov’s proposals were most often approved.
Marshal Shaposhnikov married Maria Alexandrovna. In 1918, their son Igor was born. Subsequently, he became a lieutenant-general of engineering troops, a doctor of military sciences, a teacher. He received a professorship, he headed the department at the Military Academy of the General Staff.
Shaposhnikov for a long time, as it turned out, was sick with tuberculosis. When, due to illness, he was no longer able to work, then in May 1942 he asked for his resignation from office. Stalin granted this petition, but later often turned to Boris Mikhailovich for advice. Shaposhnikov died 03/26/1945. He was buried in Moscow, near the Kremlin wall on Red Square.
Interesting facts from the life of Shaposhnikov
In the interwar period, Shaposhnikov wrote a monograph entitled “The Brain of the Army”. The book was released in 1927 and was dedicated to the events of the First World War. Boris Mikhailovich was non-partisan until 1930
Namesake and ship
Sometimes he is confused with another military figure with the same last name. The second marshal (aviation) - Shaposhnikov Evgeny Ivanovich was born in 1942. He became a military leader not only in the USSR, but also in Russia.
According to the NKVD, a separate case was opened on Shaposhnikov, in which there was information that the marshal was a religious person and carried with him a Cossack icon, which was always transferred to the clan through the male line. He also carried a cross made by Faberge.
In honor of Boris Mikhailovich was named a large anti-submarine amphibious vessel. "Marshal Shaposhnikov" - the ship, which is part of the Russian Pacific Fleet. In the lists of the Navy since 1982, launched and commissioned in 1985
In 2010, Somali pirates seized the tanker "Moscow University". The ship was released by the ship "Marshal Shaposhnikov." Pirates in the amount of ten people as a punishment were landed on the high seas on an inflatable boat.