Often dizzy, the causes of the phenomenon, diagnosis, treatment
Jun 16, 2018
Dizziness is a symptom that anyone has ever discovered in their lives - dizziness can occur during pregnancy, food poisoning, in case of a sufficiently long fasting, after general anesthesia during surgery, and after excessive consumption of alcohol.
In such cases, malaise can be considered a relatively harmless symptom - as a rule, it passes quickly enough without any consequences.However, there are a number of quite serious diseases, including life-threatening patients, which also show persistent dizziness.
- Diseases of the middle and inner ear that can manifest as dizziness
- Brain diseases that can be dizziness
- Brain injuries - bruises and concussion
- Other diseases
- Diagnostic search
- Disease treatment, Accompanied by dizziness
Diseases of the middle and inner ear that may manifest as a dizziness
Dizziness may occurak with the defeat of the central department of the vestibular apparatus, and in damage to the peripheral.There are relatively many such diseases, it can be Meniere's disease, vestibular neuronitis, labyrinthitis, vertebro-basilar insufficiency, some types of tumors, canalolithiasis and other similar ailments.
Labyrinthitis, for this inflammatory disease of the inner ear, dizziness attacks are considered a leading symptom.It can be expressed to a large extent, often accompanied by nausea and vomiting.
Depending on the course of the disease, the duration of such attacks differs - for a chronic variant, their duration can be up to several tens of minutes, in the case of an acute course, dizziness may last for several days.Depending on the characteristics of the course of the disease, there may be a decrease in the severity of the hearing, as well as a complete loss of it.
Vestibular neuronitis is an inflammatory nature of the lesion of the vestibular nerve, most often its upper branch.Differences in the course of this disease from other lesions of the auditory analyzer, accompanied by dizziness, is extremely small, therefore, vestibular neuronitis is often mistaken for Meniere's disease, labyrinthitis and other pathologies.
Meniere's disease is a pathological process with localization in the inner ear, the essence of which is to increase the amount of endolymph in its cavity.The causes of the development of the disease have not been fully established, it is believed that traumas, infections and vascular diseases can contribute to the development of the disease.
The disease can be accompanied not only by dizziness, but also by tinnitus( ringing in the ears), nausea, balance disorders and decreased hearing acuity.The course of this disease is unpredictable - the disease can both become aggravated for no apparent reason, and disappear without a trace without any treatment and never again recur.
Dizziness in Brain Diseases
Dizziness can accompany a wide variety of brain damage, from relatively harmless dyscirculatory encephalopathy to ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes.
One of the most common diseases of the brain is discirculatory encephalopathy.This disease is a consequence of a prolonged lack of oxygen and nutrients in the tissues of the brain.
Statistics show that this situation is most often observed with atherosclerotic changes in blood vessels, as well as in hypertensive disease.Dizziness in this disease is one of the main symptoms, and its appearance often depends on blood pressure or on the presence of stressful situations.
Vertigo is often accompanied by a common neurologic disease like epilepsy.This disease does not necessarily have to be manifested by so-called large seizures.Manifestations can be and not so bright, one of such manifestations can be including dizziness.
Dizziness can also be accompanied by such extremely life-threatening diseases as strokes, an ambulance should be called immediately if, in addition to dizziness, there are such symptoms:
- Severe headache, accompanied by nausea and vomiting, short-term episodes of loss of consciousness.
- Sensation of numbness in the limb, half of the body or facial muscles.
- Sharply arisen difficulty of speech or problems with understanding someone else's speech.
- Sudden loss of visual acuity.
- The precariousness of walking on the background of complete well-being, problems with keeping the balance.
If at least one item is present, there is a sufficiently high probability that the patient has a stroke, and if several points are present at once, this probability increases several times.
Dizziness with traumatic brain damage
Contusion and concussion of the brain are also accompanied, in most cases, by dizziness.As a rule, immediately after the trauma, a short-term loss of consciousness follows( the longer the victim is unconscious, the harder the brain damage).
After the consciousness returns, the victim can complain about:
- Nausea, and also vomiting.
- Noise in the ears.Sweating, sleeping problems.
- Also, with a moderate to severe injury, meningeal symptoms can be expressed.
Treatment for such manifestations usually takes place in the neurosurgery department.
Dizziness in other diseases
Dizziness can also occur with a number of other diseases:
- Anemia.Practically for all types of anemia, this symptom can be observed, this is due to the fact that with a hemoglobin and / or erythrocyte deficiency, the brain may begin to suffer from a lack of oxygen, which can manifest itself in the form of dizziness.
- Poisoning.Although most of the toxins do the maximum harm to any particular body system, the brain often suffers as well - this is manifested by weakness, headache and dizziness.
- Infectious diseases.Vertigo in this case is one of the symptoms of entering into a general toxicosis syndrome.The most striking example is the famous flu.
- Dizziness after general anesthesia.It can be either a side effect from the drug used for anesthesia, or a consequence of vasodilation or the residual action of the anesthetic.
- This symptom can also be observed with a rapid decrease in body weight.This situation can occur in both somatic and mental illnesses, for example, it can be a malignant tumor or anorexia.
- Also, dizziness can accompany a period of pregnancy, be one of the symptoms for cervical osteochondrosis or for thyroid disorders.
Diagnosis of diseases that cause dizziness
The number of diseases that can be accompanied by dizziness is large enough.However, anamnesis of life, anamnesis of the disease and other complaints substantially simplify the diagnostic search.
To confirm the diagnosis, a variety of laboratory and instrumental diagnostic methods can be used:
- Magnetic resonance and computed tomography in case of brain damage or auditory analyzer organs.Defined as inflammatory lesions, as well as the presence of neoplasms, hemorrhages or ischemia sites.
- Electroencephalography for confirmation of epilepsy.
- Audiometry and samples with tuning forks - allows you to identify abnormalities from the organs of hearing.
- Measurement of blood pressure - identifies hypertension or hypotension, which may cause dizziness.
- Ultrasonic dopplerography of the vessels of the head and neck - allows you to objectively determine the state of blood flow in both arterial and venous vessels.
Find out why your head is often dizzy, what causes of dizziness can be fixed in a sustainable way, treatment of which ailments will require treatment to a doctor and a serious treatment:
Treatment of diseases accompanied by dizziness
Since dizziness can be a manifestation of a large number of diseases,Then the methods of treatment can also differ significantly depending on the detected disease:
- In cases of bacterial damage of the middle and inner ear, the main drugs are antibiotics.
- In diseases related to brain power impairment, nootropics are widely used.
- In a number of both neurological and otorhinolaryngological diseases, good results are obtained with regular sessions of vestibular gymnastics.
- In the case of anemia, vitamin preparations or iron preparations are used - the agent is prescribed based on what element is missing for normal blood formation to a specific patient.
- Hypertensive disease is controlled with the help of antihypertensive drugs of different pharmacological groups.
- For the treatment of epilepsy, anticonvulsants, psychotropic drugs and other drugs are used.
The list of drugs used to eliminate the cause of dizziness is quite large, as in many diseases this symptom can be observed, and when the disease is cured, its manifestations disappear, and there is no need for symptomatic treatment.
Vertigo is a mixed symptom, if your head is often dizzy, the reasons can be very different.This can be as a result of fatigue or usual acute respiratory viral infection, or it may be a manifestation of such dangerous diseases as stroke or neoplasm.
To determine the cause of vertigo accurately, only the appropriate specialist - otorhinolaryngologist, neurologist, hematologist( in the case of anemia), endocrinologist( for diabetes and thyroid diseases) can prescribe effective treatment.Therefore, if you often get dizzy, it is better to go through the necessary complex of studies and make sure that there is no serious pathology.