Prince Mstislav Velikiy: biography, activities and interesting facts
The great Russian prince Mstislav VladimirovichThe great was born supposedly in February 1076. At the baptism he was called Theodore, and in Europe he was known as the prince of Harald, as well as his grandfather by mother - Harold II Godwinsohn, who was the last of Anglo-Saxon kings and the father of Gita of Wessex. The father of Mstislav Vladimirovich the Great was the most famous prince Vladimir Monomakh. Subsequently, he was ranked among the saints of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Mstislav Vladimirovich the Great in the family was the seniorson. This meant, according to the old Russian law of reign, that it was he who, after the death of his father, had to take the throne and become the great prince of Kiev. And, nevertheless, his way to the throne was not simple, moreover, he was full of obstacles and fierce struggle. During the last years of the reign of Vladimir Monomakh, Russia turned into a kind of arena for internecine wars between Russian princes. Before embarking on the throne of Kiev, Mstislav Vladimirovich the Great reigned in one or another of the Russian cities. Especially long in his power was Novgorod. With him, this city greatly expanded its possessions, was able to achieve political and economic prosperity. But at some point, Prince Mstislav had to violate the vow given to them by the Novgorodians for a lifelong reign and, on the orders of his father, left the city, heading for the reign of Belgorod. In his place in Novgorod, Vsevolod enters - his son.
The Grand Duke of Kiev
When the father of Mstislav Vladimirovich the Great diedin 1125, he automatically became the Grand Duke of Kiev. It seemed that this could become another reason for the discontent of other princes, but everything went smoothly: strangely enough, his candidacy suited everyone. However, other Russian princes did not hurry to him to swear, and at first to his possessions belonged only to Kiev and the principality of Kiev. Two years later he managed to change the situation. Mstislav decided to join the power struggle in the city of Chernigov. With the assistance of the Polovtsi, he managed to seize some of the Chernigov lands. After that the inhabitants of Smolensk bowed before him. However, he does not stay here and places his son on the throne of the throne. Soon, in his power is virtually all of Russia.
Mstislav Vladimirovich the Great: main events
After he was able to subjugate everyoneRussian princes, Mstislav decides to improve the foreign policy situation and makes several trips to the Principality of Polotsk, subjugate a number of foreign cities. For the following year, he finally conquers the Polovtsian lands and imprisons Izyaslav. On this he did not want to stop and went to the Baltic with the army. However, there it was a failure, when the Russian forces were captured, Lithuania was defeated.
Children and family
The wife of Mstislav the Great in 1095 was a daughterthe King of Sweden. She gave birth to her husband four sons. The father took care that each of his sons - Vsevolod, Izyaslav, Rostislav and Svetopolk - became rulers of different Russian cities. The Norwegian princess did not stand out for special health and soon after the birth of her youngest son died. The prince married for the second time, and in his new marriage he had two more daughters.
Results of the reign of Mstislav the Great
Why was he called Great? It was the prince who managed to stop internecine wars for some time. The years of the reign of Grand Duke Mstislav Vladimirovich were thus marked by peace on Russian soil. He became the sole ruler of Kievan Rus. In addition, he managed to expand the territory of his country. He also led a very wise tax policy: he took as much tax from the people as was necessary, did not completely rob people and left money for a normal existence. With him, almost no one was starving. Years of his reign were also marked by the construction of many Orthodox churches.
For the first time before Mstislav there was an opportunityexpand their possessions in the period of the struggle for Chernigov. His daughter was married to the Novgorod-Prince of Novgorod Vsevolod Olgovich, whose uncle at that time ruled Chernigov. He called the Polovtsi as a help and managed to drive his uncle out of his native place. Mstislav and Yaropolk came out against Vsevolod, as they swore allegiance to Yaroslav, but he did not restore the status quo. Then the Grand Duke put his son Izyaslav on the Kursk throne, and then managed to isolate Moore and Ryazan from Chernigov, after Smolensk, after the death of Svyatoslavovich, he planted his son Rostislav on the prince's throne, and he, in turn, founded a local dynasty here.
Hiking in Plock
1123 was successful for Mstislav the Great. He did not settle for the conquest of Russian cities, but decided to go to the neighbors, namely the Polovtsians. Here he was able to conquer, and afterwards to sack Strezhev, Izyaslavl, Lagozhsk, etc. Vladyka Polotsk Prince David Vseslavich was replaced, his own brother Rogvolod rose to his throne, which lasted until 1128. After his death, the throne was again occupied by Davyd, but Mstislav could not manage to do this and took him and his two other brothers into captivity, and Izyaslav Mstislavich was appointed prince of local places. Polotsk land was ruled by a minor prince Vasilko Svyatoslavich, whom Mstislav the Great in 1130 sent to Constantinople in Constantinople.
Legends associated with the name of Mstislav the Great
German church leader of the first third of the XII century. Rupert in his "Praise to the Holy Panteleimon" informs that, during the reign of Mstislav-Harald, almost died during the hunt. He was attacked by a bear and ripped open his stomach in such a way that his entrails fell out. The wounded prince was brought to his house. His mother, Gita, began to pray to Saint Panteleimon. And then the dream of Mstislav Vladimirovich the Great was dreamed. Briefly, barely breathing, he told his mother about him: a young man came to him and promised to heal him. According to legend, the next morning a young man came to him, very much like Panteleimon, brought with him various drugs and healed him. When Mstislav's second son was born, he was given the name Panteleimon at baptism. Moreover, the prince founded a wonderful monastery in Novgorod and named it in the name of this saint. And it was not the only temple that he rebuilt. It was on his orders that the Annunciation Church and Nikolo-Dvorishchensky Cathedral were built.
Diploma of the Great Prince of Kiev Mstislav Vladimirovich
This is the most unique monument of Russia's past, whichhas reached our days. It was written on parchment, and to it was attached a loose silver seal with gilding. This document is dated to the epoch of the great, that is, the Kiev prince Mstislav Vladimirovich (1125-1132), for his deeds named in the people by the Great. It is not possible to establish the exact date for drawing up the Diploma of the Grand Duke Mstislav Vladimirovich, therefore it is generally accepted that this happened around 1130. It was then that the son of the Grand Duke, Vsevolod, came to his father to Kiev, although in some annals this event dates back to 1126. Historian SV Yushkov calls this document an immunity letter. This means that its owner is primarily transferred to the right to land ownership and to collect tribute, virgin and sale. Later he also received awards in the form of exemption from financial and administrative subordination of princely power and general jurisdiction. Mstislav's charter was kept in
Buitsa, in the monastery, laid down under Vsevolod. It is located on the shore of the lake of the same name on the border of the Tver and Pskov provinces.
Death of the Grand Duke
According to the chronicle Mstislav Vladimirovich died 14April 1132. His throne he passed not to one of his sons, as everyone had assumed, but to his brother Yaropolk. However, he set a condition before him that after he rose to the grand princely throne, his Pereyaslavelsky would yield to Mstislav Vsevolod's son. However, this plan failed to be implemented, since his younger brothers rose up against Vsevolod. While the uncles and nephews were at enmity with each other for the Kiev throne, the Olhovichi came to the arena of the struggle, which also claimed power in Kiev. It turned out that the death of Mstislav became the reason for the collapse of Kievan Rus to many isolated principalities that waged internecine wars among themselves.
New data on Mstislav the Great in the light of archeology
In the 20th century on the territory of the Moscow Region, inMogutovsky archaeological complex was discovered the seal of Mstislav Vladimirovich. In the last 10 years, archaeologists have found several more seals belonging to this great prince. They were buried under a thick layer of soil in the Novgorod region. Also a document was found, from which it was possible to learn that one of the daughters of Mstislav was called Rogneda. Before that, both princesses were called exclusively by patronymic.