Radius. Description. Some types of fractures
Man's forearm is tubular longbones. There are only two of them. In the forearm is the elbow and the radius. They are bent so that, being near, they are connected only by their ends. At the same time, there is space between them. The ulna and the radius include the body (diaphysis) and the ends (epiphyses). On the epiphyses are articular surfaces.
By means of some articular surfaces, a connection with the humerus is made. Others are designed for articulation with segments of the wrist.
The ulna and radius in its entire lengthhave a trihedral shape. There are three edges and three surfaces. One surface is directed forward, the other is facing back. The third - at the ulna - to the inside, and at the radial bone - to the outside.
Of all three edges sharp one.It divides the posterior and anterior surfaces, facing the adjacent bone, limiting the space between the bones. In this regard, it has one more name - the interosseous region.
It should be noted that the components of the skeleton of the forearm, in addition to common features, have distinctive features.
Thus, the radius is located on the outsideforearm. The lower epiphysis of this segment is more massive. At the top end is the head of the bone. There is a small depression in it. The edge of the head has an articular circumference.
Just below the head is the neck. The radial bone is also endowed with a special tuberosity, the place of attachment of the biceps brachial muscle.
The radius of the radialis differs somewhat by its widened lower end. On the inside there is a tenderloin. It comes in the ulna.
On the opposite side there isstyloid process, going downwards. The lower surface has a concave carpal articular surface. Using a ledge, it is divided into two sections for the semilunar and scaphoid bone.
In traumatological practice, there arevarious injuries to the bones of the forearm. Among them, experts identify more or less common. So, as a result of a direct (blow to the forearm) or an indirect (falling on the arm) injuries, a diaphyseal fracture in both bones of the forearm can occur. In this case, small fragments of segments are formed, the position of which can vary. Due to the contraction of the membrane between the bones, the fragments tend to approach each other.
Fracture of radius with displacementis characterized by some shortening of the forearm. The patient supports the injured limb with a healthy arm. Mobility of the fragments provokes a sharp pain at the moment of palpation of the site, lateral compression of the forearm site removed from the injury site and under the axial load.
When falling on an elongated arm, as a rule,there is a fracture of the head of the radius. In this case, pain appears in the elbow joint area, a swelling arises, and the patient is difficult to move the limb. Due to the fact that this type of damage includes several types, an X-ray examination is necessary to establish an accurate diagnosis.