Road construction in Russia. Why are roads so expensive?
Virtually every resident of our state wondered - why are roads so expensive? And all thanks to the fact that the problem of building asphalt pavement is particularly relevant. Let's look at this issue in more detail.
Calculations and calculus
Why are roads so expensive in Russia? Firstly, their coating is not just a sheet of asphalt, which in a few minutes “grabs” gravel. The construction of roads is a complex of gradually erected structures. Moreover, it is not only the internal elements that matter. An important component is the layout of the road: curbs, interchanges, rings, trips, barriers, pedestrian crossings, and so on.
Most people wonder why the roads are so expensive, but very few people take into account that along with asphalt pavement it is necessary to provide comfort for drivers, as well as safety of passengers and pedestrians.Considering that much less money is spent on the highway, then making roads in the city is, at times, an inconceivable amount for the municipal budget. Costs are also strongly influenced by the allowed speed of movement.
Complain about the climate
Indeed, why are roads so expensive in Russia than abroad? The answer to this question is hidden in climatic conditions. Several natural belts are located on the territory of the Russian state. And, of course, the sharply continental climate makes itself felt.
Therefore, a unique project is created for each region that has no analogues. The design process compares prices for material and labor, takes into account the particular location and climatic conditions of the region. Significant differences can be found in two projects of cities from one region, and what can we say about the state as a whole? Developers consider the following factors:
- natural conditions;
- engineering and geological conditions;
- the base of the road;
- weight loads;
- used road materials;
- speed mode;
- availability of construction equipment;
- the amount of work in general.
There are constant factors that cannot be eliminated in certain districts. Therefore, wondering why the roads are so expensive, you should learn about the permafrost of the Siberian valley, the moving soils and rocks of the Caucasus. Together with the changeable climate - low temperatures, their frequent changes, huge or insignificant rainfall in several seasons of the year - all this forms a rather costly quintessence of coverage.
For example, let's go to the Caucasus. About 70% of the territories of this region have the following indicators: low temperatures in winter, a short period of optimal conditions for construction, a high depth level of soil freezing, a large amount of precipitation.
In order to carry out one highway, powerful engineering and technical facilities, additional frost protection materials, high wages for workers are needed, since the work is carried out in adverse conditions. And these figures, as you can see, significantly increase the cost of roads.
Why are road repairs so expensive? Another reason lies in the purchase of building materials andthe cost of their transportation. Where there are no quarries with rubble, sand, the costs increase many times over. For example, the source of gravel in the Moscow region is at a distance of 550 km. After analyzing all the calculations, you can easily conclude that the cost of construction consists of 70% of transportation costs.
Is the purchase of land justified?
Another reason why the roads are so expensive is the financial component of the purchase of land. Planning of the road is carried out on the basis of optimality of movement, speed limit, as well as financial savings. In this regard, state and municipal institutions often have to buy out land plots of individuals - and this leads to additional costs.
Another factor affecting the cost characteristics of construction is densely populated terrain. Thus, developers definitely need to include in the estimate the costs of communications reorganization, demolition of facilities, compensation payments to individuals and legal entities. Typically, these costs range from 5% to 55% of the total cost of road surface.These factors provide an obvious answer to the question of why roads are so expensive. Road construction costs the state and the municipality a lot of money.
An extensive problem of the modern world is corruption, which has leaked into the area of road construction. Anyone who understands the preparation of plans for building, preparation and implementation of the necessary measures, without problems, can create a kind of vigorous activity. As a result, the coating serves a couple of months, and then, due to poor-quality materials, brings drivers.
Comparing pavements in foreign countries, one can easily find the answer to the question: why are roads so expensive in Russia? The fact is that Russian standards prescribe the construction of a multi-lane road at 3.75 m. While in foreign countries a maximum width of 3.5 meters is envisaged.
The cost is influenced by the size of the roadside cover. Abroad, the standard size of the curb is from 2 to 3 meters, and in Russia - not less than the size of the road itself. As a result, the indicator of the area of roads is 12-40% more foreign.These standards in almost 2 times increase the cost of coverage.
Speed limit is another indicator that increases the price of the estimate. More dense materials and road rolling are expensive. In Russia, roads are laid at the rate of 140-150 km / h (maximum speed), while in the United States a maximum of 120 km / h is established. The above factors fully explain why roads are so expensive. State and municipal bodies should review the approach to building and purchasing materials, as well as carefully control the costs and activities of workers.