The abolition of serfdom in Russia: causes and consequences
The abolition of serfdom in Russia meant the elimination of the shame of the country. All feudal remnants hampered the general development of the state, did not allow to complete the industrial revolution and improve production efficiency. Who decided on this step? Of course, Alexander 2 Liberator.
The reasons for the abolition of serfdom in Russia
When the new emperor came to power, the country was in a state of war. And it was precisely this confrontation, or rather the signed peace treaty, according to which Russia was forbidden to have a fleet on the Black Sea, made it clear that the state needs radical changes. This suggests that the Crimean War became a catalyst for change. Another cancellation was caused by the crisis of the feudal serf system, the awareness of the backwardness in development from a number of Western countries, and social tensions in the state. The monarch understood the necessity and expediency of the reforms and began to approach them reasonably, with careful preparation and analysis.
The abolition of serfdom in Russia: preparation
How was the reform carried out? The emperor knew that such drastic changes must be well thought out. It is for this purpose that he creates special commissions, which for several years have been assessing the situation in the country, analyzing all possible consequences of the reform and studying the relations that have developed in the state, and also composing programs. The first commission was called a serious committee. The members of this organization, in secret from everyone, together with the emperor, thought out a plan for such a necessary reform. After drawing up the first program, the committee is renamed the Main. There are already heated discussions and the necessary changes are being made. This body will last until the adoption of the manifesto. During all its activities, the Drafting Committee also works, which assesses the appropriateness of the amendments. Further, the program is submitted for discussion to the State Council. Also, the necessary conditions for improving the life of landlord peasants are discussed at provincial and nobleman meetings. Thus, it can be seen that the abolition of serfdom in Russia was prepared persistently and for a long time.This suggests that Alexander II understood the need and riskiness of change.
The abolition of serfdom in Russia: the main provisions and manifesto
What were the changes? Firstly, the personal freedom of the peasants, who were given land for a certain redemption, was implied. Secondly, they received all common civil rights (the right to bargain, the right to buy land and others). Thirdly, the help from the government: the state gave 80% of the money redemption on credit. The manifesto was released on February 19, known to all in 1861. This date will forever remain in the history of the country and in the memory of people, because it marked the beginning of a new period in the life of society. The abolition of serfdom in Russia, briefly described in the article, allowed the state to say goodbye forever to the remnants of the past and reach a new level of development.