Types of sterilization - description, features and reviews
Types of medical sterilization were developed with the aim of destroying microorganisms, including in the vegetative phase. Such processing of the object allows to eliminate disputes, to make colonies of microscopic life forms fruitless. If the material is subjected to the modern type of sterilization, in medicine they say that the spore, vegetative forms are effectively destroyed. Equally, it allows you to fight with non-pathogenic and pathogenic microscopic organisms.
Types and methods of sterilization
Sterilization involves the careful processing of objects, as well as elements of the equipment used in the diagnosis in medical institutions. It is very important in this way to disinfect everything that can touch a human wound, blood. No less significant are the types of sterilization, the purpose of which is disinfection upon contact with other biological components and media.
Another important aspect is the handling of the equipment used for injection. If the doctor works with damage to the mucous membrane, he should use only the instruments that have undergone certain types of sterilization.
Important and necessary
The most relevant types of sterilization control in the walls of hospitals. They were designed to prevent the formation of nosocomial infections. The activities are non-specific and, with careful observance of the standards, show a truly effective result. It is known that nosocomial infections can be triggered by non-sterile items used for medical purposes. Thus, various modes and types of sterilization is a barrier that allows you to maintain the health of the patient. And also to prevent contact with the pathogen.
Currently, all types of sterilization and disinfection are hygienic, sanitary measures. It is assumed processing of such items that are dangerous in terms of a possible epidemic. If a product can potentially be a tool for the spread of infection, it must be carefully processed.
Sterilization: concept, types
Modern medicine practices several solutions to this problem. Special equipment is used inside which the instruments used in medicine can be sterilized. It is customary to divide the methods into chemical and physical. The second category is also known as thermal exposure. This treatment with steam, air, infrared radiation. One of the rather effective methods is gloss glass technology. If steam is chosen, then it is heated to a high temperature and saturated with water. The air also warms up very strongly, but is served dry. Glosperlen method involves the use of hot balls of durable glass.
There are two types of sterilization: centralized, decentralized. In the first case, the material that is to be treated under specific conditions, after the completion of disinfection, is sent to the sterilization department. First, preprocessing activities are organized here. Only after that does sterilization begin. The work involves only personnel who have received special instructions on the use of such equipment.
The decentralized type of sterilization involves the processing of medical material with disinfectants. Then comes the preliminary preparation stage. And the actual sterilization in the workplace. A classic example of a place where exactly this approach is used is dental offices.
Thermal, they are physical, types of sterilization are techniques that are currently quite common. They are considered a classic approach to the problem, they are actively used in a variety of medical institutions. The work involves air or steam heated to a very high temperature.
The technique, in the opinion of doctors, has proven itself to be very convenient. You can handle including unpacked tools. When the procedure ends, the surface of the product will be clean, with no trace of specific chemical components. The newest devices developed for this type of sterilization are able to consistently maintain a given heating mode, quickly process the materials fed. At the same time, installations are economical due to the small expenditure on consumables - there is no need to purchase expensive specialized chemicals.
What is processed?
Modern requirements for the devices used in the sterilization process are very high. In particular, it should be efficient machines with a decent degree of adaptability, as well as safe for the environment, and for humans in particular. It is necessary to check the product for compatibility with the tools that are usually processed in a particular workplace.
The most highly valued machines that have ample opportunity to customize the operating mode. Also, modern units are provided with control systems, dosages, due to which staff can clearly track the process. The best machines are also convenient to use, which is important if we are talking about a hospital with a high traffic, where you need to work quickly, and you have to contact with the device numerous staff. Hospital managers say that the ease of mastering the workflow and the ease of use of the sterilizer become the key to the effectiveness of its use.
If the installation can work with several modes, each specific use case allows you to select the optimal parameters for the tool being processed.The latest cars also have indicators that reflect the degree of readiness, including sound signals. If a surveillance system is provided, it is more convenient to use the machine. Some advanced mechanisms are equipped with self-monitoring systems for all types of sterilization quality, testing the functionality of functions and blocking during the actual work.
The ideal machine for sterilizing medical instruments is a device that efficiently processes any product. It should not matter how complex the shape of the tool is. But in medicine, quite often quite cunning devices are used. A quality sterilizer is one that can cope with the most unusual form, spending a reasonable amount of time and expendable material on it.
In many ways, the quality of the machine is determined by the compositions it uses, but the responsible attitude of the staff is no less significant. From time to time, equipment must be sent for routine inspection, repair, to ensure the quality of work.
Air to the aid of doctors
Dry heat is one of the most common types of sterilization.The substance is heated to 180 ° C and processed tools within an hour. If necessary, you can resort to a sparing mode, when the product is under the influence of air heated to 160 degrees for two and a half hours.
A dry instrument is placed in the machine, ready for sterilization. Usually, in addition, all items are wrapped in kraft paper or bag, resistant to the influence of humidity. You can use this wrapper, which is used in packaging machines. In some cases it is allowed to handle items without packaging. To do this, they are placed in open containers. The storage period in the package after processing is up to three days. If the item has been sterilized in the open, then it cannot be stored, it is used immediately upon completion of processing.
Autoclave to fight microorganisms
With this device, steam sterilization is usually resorted to. When referring to the main mode of operation, it is necessary to pressurize up to two atmospheres, while steam is supplied heated to 132 ° C. The processing time is only one third of an hour. At the sparing mode it is necessary to decontaminate the products for 45 minutes, maintaining the heating of steam at the level of 120 degrees. The pressure in this case is set at 1.1 atm.
According to doctors, the advantage of the method is that the use of an autoclave is allowed if latex, rubber, glass objects and manufactured from resistant polymers resistant to metal corrosion are subject to treatment. You can use the device for sterilizing textiles. Usually, the toolkit is first placed in a special box. You can use a double parchment, cohesive, paper moisture-resistant layer. If a filter box is used, then the instrument, sterilized in such conditions, may be stored without unpacking for up to 20 days.
Sterilization using glass beads is a fairly modern and effective way, optimal for the dental office. Most often, in its application, burs, diamond heads and other instruments used in a dental clinic are treated.
Sterilization involves the absence of packaging. Past processed items must be used immediately, storage is not possible. The technique is common in conditions where decentralized sterilization is needed.
What else is possible?
In some cases, the use of self has been found types of sterilization using ultrasound, electric current.Currently, the use of these techniques is relatively narrow, although some experts are convinced that in the future such technologies will become much more popular than they are now.
Plasma as a means of sterilization
In such installations use a special gas, ionized completely or at a certain percentage. A distinctive feature of a substance is the equal charge density of both poles. Neutral molecules, electrons, and ions are used to form the plasma in the installation. Up to a third of all devices currently used in the medical industry cannot be processed using high temperatures or aggressive chemicals, so the plasma installation is the only reasonable option. In particular, such conditions put forward fiber-optic instruments, electronics, polymers, sensors, catheters, probes.
When autoclaves, chemicals, high temperatures are ineffective or unavailable, you should use the different possibilities of plasma installations. One of the most popular types of such machines is peroxide-plasma.In the machine, the instrumentation is processed with hydrogen peroxide plasma. The formation of the compound due to low temperature combined with electromagnetic exposure. The mode assumes warming up no higher than 50 ° C, due to which even products that are not resistant to heat do not suffer during the work process. The activity is due to hydrogen cations, hydroxide ions, which do not adversely affect metals, glass, polymeric compounds, but effectively disinfect all surfaces.
Why does this work?
The effectiveness of plasma systems is due to the fact that hydroxide ions oxidize the environment to a very high degree, which is largely due to the presence of a hydrogen cation. Also, the atmosphere is filled with hydrogen peroxide molecules. Bacteria in the vegetative form, viruses, spores die in such an environment almost instantly. Proved the effectiveness of plasma installations in the processing of instruments, potentially infected with hepatitis B, the causative agent of tuberculosis, pseudomonas aeruginosa. Studies have shown that plasma helps with other pathogenic, conditionally pathogenic microscopic life forms.
Sterilization in a plasma unit involves the initial preparatory stage, during which the instruments are disinfected, cleaned by mechanical methods, using effective detergent chemical compounds. Objects are dried, packed in polyethylene with an indicator of the level of sterility and placed inside the unit. The machines currently used are fully automatic, they do not need to be controlled, and the duration is determined by the mode chosen by the operator. Usually, the procedure takes a little less than an hour and is performed using a 60% hydrogen peroxide solution.