What is a blockade?
The word "blockade" has several meanings. This term is used in medicine (to refer to a therapeutic action or pathology of the heart), in economics, in historical science and in chess.
All the meanings of the term blockade are described in detail below.
What is the blockade in medicine
In medicine, the term “blockade” is used in two meanings. The first of these is heart block, a pathology associated with impaired conduction of nerve fibers that innervate this organ. At the same time, nerve impulses do not reach their destination and, consequently, the heart cannot properly perform its functions. This pathology is provoked by conduction disturbances in the nerve fiber in any of its parts. Depending on where the disturbance of conduction occurred, there are different types of blockades:
- Sinoatrial blockade - “broken” nerve fiber in the area from the sinus node to the atria;
- atrial blockade - fiber is broken between the atria;
- atrioventricular block (atrioventricular), intraventricular blockade - a violation in the path of the nerve impulse between the ventricles or from the atrioventricular node to them.
There are three degrees of blockades, they depend on the degree of conduction disturbance (conduction retardation, selective conduction and complete loss of the possibility of conducting impulses).
What is a blockade? It is also a medical procedure that involves the introduction (injection) of a drug - an anesthetic (Novocain, lidocaine, etc.) into large nerve fibers. This effect is performed in order to relieve painful sensations, in particular spasms.
Although it is short, but effective, as the muscle fiber spasm is eliminated, bringing them to normal tone, so the patient's condition improves for a long period. Quite often, a blockade can help with stretching the neck muscles - more about this in our article How to cure the neck.
An economic blockade is a term denoting a complete restriction of external (political, economic) relations with foreign countries of individual administrative-territorial entities (region, republic) or an entire state. Such blockade is carried out through blocking of all transport routes (motorways, sea and air channels).
The economic blockade also includes restricting financial flows abroad (it is impossible to purchase one or another product in online stores, using electronic money or bank accounts). An example is the economic blockade of the Soviet Union by America and other countries, beginning in 1917.
A military blockade is all sorts of actions aimed at isolating enemy military forces through the complete or partial loss of external reinforcement by them. This also includes activities designed to minimize telephone, telegram, mobile and other types of communication with the outside world and friendly actors.
A military blockade may be directed at various objects: populated areas, areas of cities, groups of troops, whole republics or states, islands, ports and naval bases, bays, straits, etc. Accordingly, depending on the location of the blocking object, there are land, air, sea and mixed blockades.
The military blockade has various goals - forcing a blockable object to surrender, depleting resources, waiting for the purpose of further destruction of the object, losing the ability to transfer reinforcement forces to other areas of hostilities, etc.
One of the most famous is the blockade of Leningrad during the Second World War, which was carried out by the German fascist troops and lasted 871 days. Get more information about what was happening at this time, you can, if you read our article What was the Great Patriotic War.
Blockade in chess
Blockade is also one of the tactics in a chess game, which consists in restricting the movement of certain enemy pieces, most often pawns. To do this, you simply need to carry out moves with your own pieces so that the opponent’s pieces cannot move.
The theory of chess says that the blockade is most effective with the help of such figures as a horse, an elephant, and also "heavy" figures (a queen, an officer, etc.).