What is a speaker in simple words?
Loudspeakers, microphones, loudspeakers and other accessories that perform the function of sound reproduction, have recently been very popular among many music fans. They are interested not only in their power and quality, but also in the principle of operation. In this article we tried in simple words to answer the question "What is a speaker?" and explain how it works. If this is really interesting for you, then you are welcome! Get ready, there is a lot of interesting information ahead!
What is a speaker?
The speaker is the most popular sound emitter of all. It can be found almost everywhere: on TVs, mobile phones, tablets, laptop computers, headphones, cameras, etc. The design of the speaker, which we will discuss in detail a little later, is as simple as five kopecks. Like any other device, it has its pros and cons. The advantages of this design include:
- Good transmission of low frequency sounds.
- Variety of sizes and shapes.
But, as we have said, there are some downsides:
- Frequent signal distortion.
- Nonlinearity of the frequency response of the system.
How does the speaker work?
How does the sound flow through the speaker? Someone might think that the principle of the dynamics is very complex, but, in fact, it can be explained in simple and understandable words.
We all know from childhood that if you bring two magnets together, their opposite poles will begin to attract. Someone may be very surprised, but this phenomenon is present in the usual dynamics.
The main part of the device is the coil, on which the wire is wound. When an electric charge is passed through it, an electromagnet is obtained. It is worth adding that the polarity of the resulting magnet depends on the direction in which the discharge was started.
The second integral part of the speaker is a permanent magnet in the form of a ring. The aforementioned coil is thrust into the hole of this ringlet, and then connected to the membrane of the whole structure. As a rule, a cone made of paper or plastic acts as a membrane.
This technology works in a different direction. When the coil is swinging, the permanent magnet field will generate an electron discharge from the inside, the direction of which will vary with the oscillation frequency.
The coil's contacts accept the current, its direction changes under the influence of the sound frequencies of a particular music track. The membrane "pushes" the air in front of itself, thus creating sound waves. To make the membrane work better, it is created in the form of a cone.
To fully understand what a speaker is, you can not ignore the topic of acoustic design.
Acoustic design - these are the details that are around the speaker (if it is easier to say, this is its body). Not everyone pays enough attention to him, but in vain: the final sound reproduced by the speaker is very dependent on the acoustic design.
Types of acoustic design
- Closed The speaker is installed in the middle of the wall of a hollow box, which often consists of plastic or wood. The main advantage of this technology is its simplicity. The main disadvantage is low efficiency.
- Phase inverter.The speaker is attached to the center of the wall of the hollow box, which is usually made of plastic or wood, but with the only difference that a tube is placed under or above it or a hole is created. What is it for? The content of this tube is a pre-calculated amount of air, which is an additional source of sound. With such a scheme, the device creates oscillations both inside the box and outside. These vibrations come out of the hole, thus increasing the outgoing volume.
- Closed with a passive radiator. By design, it resembles the previous version, but in this case, the second radiator is not air, but a speaker, unable to move itself.
- Horn speaker (or speaker-speaker). This name he received because of his cone-shaped body. As a rule, such a body is made of several parts, but one-piece structures are also found. In the case of small-sized horns, the quality of sound reproduction is in the background, since the horn several times increases the volume and the quality does not deteriorate much. In theory, low-frequency sounds can be carried out through a horn, but for this to happen it should be just incredible sizes.
- Acoustic maze.This design is a peculiar hybrid of the second and fourth variants. Inside it is a snake-shaped tube, and at its end there is a mouthpiece. Often this type of construction is used for large concert subwoofers.
To finally answer the question "What is a speaker?", You need to tell about electrostatic emitters.
These devices consist of two stators, to which alternating sound vibrations are sent, and films between them. The last is a perforated metal sheet, which is supplied with high voltage. The transparency of the film is about 50%. It is coated with a dielectric substance necessary to protect the user from the negative effects of high voltage.
Advantages and disadvantages
An electrostatic emitter is really a very interesting thing, the study of which will cause genuine delight among people interested in this topic. But electrostats, like classical speakers, have their advantages and disadvantages.
Let's start by looking at the advantages:
- Smooth amplitude-frequency response.
- The small size of the membrane, which is excited throughout its area.
- The absence of any phase distortion.
- Simple construction.
- Weak sensitivity.
- The need for high-voltage source and high-voltage amplifier.
- The number of low frequencies depends on the sound reproduction area.
- High directivity in mid-frequency and high-frequency range.
Now you know the meaning of the word "speaker", as well as how it works and what kinds it happens. Stay with us if you want to continue to receive interesting information!