What is opera in music - the definition. The most famous and modern operas
The question of what opera is in music is very important for understanding the characteristics of this genre in a musical theater. In our time, opera performances have not lost their popularity and still collect full halls. Many modern composers continue to create new works in this genre. This review presents a brief overview of the history of the formation of musical performances, as well as a list of their most famous types.
Appearance and development
Answering the question of what opera is in music should be started with a short description of the formation of this genre. Its origins are rooted in the history of the ancient theater, in which the choir played a very large role in the performances. Subsequently, this tradition moved to the Italian stage. The emergence of opera performances was preceded by the creation of church musical performances.Gradually, on the secular stage, they began to put on performances in which the orchestra and vocals played a decisive role. When studying the question of what opera is in music, schoolchildren need to explain that the origins of this genre go far back in antiquity, it developed in the Renaissance.
The main feature of the opera as a musical performance is that the orchestra is the main character in it. It is the musical accompaniment that provides the opera performance with the unity of action and ideological content. Of great importance is the vocal performance of musical parts. The voice of the singer often determined the characteristics of the music. Often, composers wrote scores specifically for specific singers. This was done, for example, by the famous composer Bellini for the tenor Roubini. Stage decoration, scenery, costumes also play an important role in the transfer of the composer's intention. So, when analyzing the question of what opera is in music, it must be remembered that this performance is a unity of word, music and action.
Initially, composers took mythological stories for their works as a plot. However, very soon the operas became more diverse in content and musical design.The historical genre was especially popular (Nabucco, Anna Bolein and others).
Often, opera was based on real events. The definition of this concept should include a reference to the diversity of musical performances that exist on theatrical stages. In addition to the historical genre, composers often turned to comedic plots.
So there were representations in the style of buff ("Don Pasquale"). Melodramas were also always popular with the audience (“La Traviata”, “Somnambula” and others).
A certain construction has an opera. The definition of this term should include a small description of the structure of a musical performance. At the beginning, an overture sounds as an introduction, in which the composer briefly introduces the audience and audience with the plot and history of the performance. In the overture sounds the main musical motive of the whole performance. The opera, the musical genre of which dictated certain rules for authors when writing vocal parts, consists of separate numbers - arias, duets, tertsetov, choral parts. Usually they are divided among themselves by recitatives of characters, which serve as a transitional link between solo singing.However, towards the end of the 19th century, the authors began to look for new ways to convey the experiences of heroes and, therefore, to create more drama, they wrote vocals as a continuous musical stream, without recitatives (Puccini, Massenet and others).
Huge vocal skill requires opera from the performer. The musical genre of these representations determined the emergence of various performance techniques. The most popular of these was the bel canto, the so-called beautiful singing. The peculiarity of operas written in this style was that their parts demanded from the singer not so much drama as virtuosity in singing. An integral part of such musical works was the obligatory presence of a coloratura - complex passages in the arias. The most famous authors of coloratura music were Handel, Mozart, Rossini. In such performances the orchestra plays a supporting role, the entire burden falls directly on the performer. Other composers, on the contrary, focused on drama. In such works, the orchestra determines the action and atmosphere on the stage. Masters of dramatic opera are considered to be Verdi, Wagner, Tchaikovsky.In the performance of their works, the singer no longer needs a technician, but the power and expressiveness of a voice that would be as powerful as a heavy orchestra.
The most famous operas are still successfully performed at leading theaters in the world. Practice shows that at present the audience almost equally prefers both light pieces in bel canto style and serious drama performances. From the first category one can name such a cult work as “The Barber of Seville” by Rossini, which periodically goes to theaters of various countries of the world, from the second group, the opera “Rigoletto” by Verdi is worth mentioning.
Among the works of domestic composers, Tchaikovsky's work “Eugene Onegin” is especially popular. Modern opera also deserves special mention. Many authors are pleased to write in this genre.
One of them is “Love from afar” by Finnish author K. Saariakho. This original musical composition is dedicated to the story of the beautiful love of a French knight and a beautiful woman, whom he learned from the words of a pilgrim. Separately, mention should be made of an interesting opera by the Hungarian composer P. Etvösz, written based on the play “Three Sisters” by Chekhov.For several years this performance has successfully sustained a number of productions on European stages.
One of the last notable operas is the South Pole, a work by the Czech author M. Srnka, which is dedicated to the history of the rivalry between two famous polar travelers for the study of Antarctica. So, in our days, classical music and musical performances are still popular among viewers and composers.