What is romanticism?
Romanticism is an ideological and artistic trend in the culture of the end of the XVIII - 1st half of the XIX centuries. Romanticism emerged as a response to the disappointment that prevailed in Europe in the ideals of the Great French Revolution of 1789-1794, the Enlightenment and bourgeois values. So what is romanticism, and what are its signs?
The main features of romanticism
In contrast to classicism, which asserted the inviolability of state foundations and the public interest, the new trend expressed a desire for personal freedom, independence from society. Romanticism has brought a lot of new in all areas of artistic activity.
Works of lyrical orientation allowed to reflect the emotions of a person. A new character is a strong personality, experiencing a mismatch of internal aspirations and demands of society. Nature is also an independent character. Her image (often with elements of mysticism) helps to convey the state of a person.
Appeal to national history, national epos became the basis of a new theme. There are works that illuminate the heroic past, depicting heroes,sacrificing their lives for high goals. Legends and traditions allowed to escape from the ordinary in the world of fiction, symbols.
Romanticism in literature
Romanticism appeared in Germany, in the literary and philosophical circles of the “Jena school” (Schlegel brothers, etc.). The brightest representatives of the direction are F. Schelling, the brothers Grimm, Hoffmann, G. Heine.
In England, W. Scott, J. Keats, Shelley, and W. Blake took in new ideas. The most prominent representative of romanticism was J. Byron. His work had a great influence on the distribution of directions, including in Russia. The popularity of his “Childe Harold Travels” led to the emergence of the “Byronism” phenomenon (Pechorin in the “Hero of Our Time” by M. Lermontov).
French romantics - Chateaubriand, V. Hugo, P. Merime, George Sand, Polish - A. Mickiewicz, American - F. Cooper, G. Longfellow, etc.
In Russia, romanticism developed after the Patriotic War of 1812 because of the refusal of Alexander I from the liberalization of public life, the beginning of the reaction, the neglect of merits before the patronymic of a whole pleiad of heroes. This was the impetus for the emergence of works that depict strong characters, violent passions, conflicts.In this significant period for Russian culture, literature using new artistic means appeared. So what is romanticism in literature? This is the greatest development of such genres as a ballad, an elegy, a lyric-epic poem, a historical novel.
The traits of romanticism are manifested in the works of V. Zhukovsky and are developed by Baratynsky, Ryleev, Kuchelbecker, Pushkin (“Eugene Onegin”), Tyutchev. And the works of Lermontov, “Russian Byron,” are considered the pinnacle of Russian romanticism.
Romanticism in music and painting
What is romanticism in music? This is a reflection of the world of spiritual experiences, striving for ideals through fabulous and historical images. Hence the development of such genres as a symphonic poem, opera, ballet, song genre (ballad, romance).
The leading romantic composers are F. Mendelssohn, G. Berlioz, R. Schumann, F. Chopin, I. Brams, A. Dvorak, R. Wagner, and others. In Russia, M. Glinka, A. Dargomyzhsky, M. Balakirev, A. Borodin, M. Mussorgsky, N. Rimsky-Korsakov, P. Tchaikovsky, S. Rachmaninoff. In music, romanticism lasted until the beginning of the twentieth century.
Romantic painting is characterized by dynamic composition, a sense of movement, a rich color.In France it is Géricault, Delacroix, David; in Germany - Runge, Koch, Biedermeier style. In England - Turner, Constable, Pre-Raphaelites Rossetti, Morris, Burne-Jones. In Russian painting - K. Bryullov, O. Kiprensky, Aivazovsky.
From this article, you learned what romanticism is, the definition of this concept and its main features.