What is the root of the word?
Morphemics - one of the most difficult topics for the child. Correctly divide the word into parts can not every student. Nevertheless, the ability to correctly identify parts of a word is a prerequisite for mastering a number of rules of Russian spelling.
Russian language: what is the root of the word
A morpheme is a significant part of a word. First, when morphemic parsing allocate the basis and end. The base is the unchangeable part of the word, and the ending is changeable and indicates the shape of the word. For example, in the word "cows" cows are the base, and you are the end. The basis of the word includes the following parts of the word (morpheme) - prefix, root, ending. An important morpheme, which is indicated when parsing a word by an arc, is the root of the word.
What is the root of the word? The root of the word is the common part of the related words. What words are called single root? At the heart of single-root words is one root, the other morphemes are different. For example, high - height, leaf - foliage, dad - daddy, sister - sister.
How to find common words
- There are words that have the same roots, but are not one-root.Thus, in the adjectives “peace” and “world”, the root “world” can be distinguished, but the words will not be single-rooted, since in the first case the adjective is derived from the word “peace” in the meaning “without war”, and in the second - in the meaning “ what is around, the universe. " Lexical differences of words cannot make words single-rooted.
- Do not confuse single-root words and forms of one word. For example, the words “carrot” and “carrot” are words with the same root, and “carrot” and “carrots” are the word forms of the word “carrot”.
- Singular words do not necessarily belong to one part of speech. So, if “carrot” and “carrot” are nouns, then “run” and “run” are a noun and a verb, and “fun” and “cheerful” are an adverb and adjective.
- Do not forget that in addition to the root, there are prefixes and suffixes in the word. If you can highlight them, then finding the same words will be much easier. For example, the word "chin". It is possible to distinguish the prefix under-, suffix -k and root -beard-. Thus, it is now possible to find single-root words: bearded, beard, beardless.
- Difficulties may arise from historical alternations of consonants. Externally, the roots are different, but the meaning is preserved.The fact is that before the sound of the Russian language was different from what can be heard today. Due to historical changes in the sound structure of the language, the same root in different words may sound differently.
Some examples are:
- KH ': hands / a - ruch' / k / a
- to-c-h ': l'ik / - l'its / o - l'ich' / n / th
- Mrs.: legs / a - knife / c / a
- Mrs.: friend / - friend / and / t '- friends' / ya
- hsh: uh / o-ush / and
Although the final consonants in the roots are different, the presented pairs of words are cognate.
What is the orthogram of the root
Why do you need to highlight the root of the word and look for one-root words? The fact is that one of the basic principles of Russian spelling (spelling) is a morphemic principle. It appears, for example, in the rule “Unstressed vowel in the root of a word” or in the rule “The unpronounceable consonant in the root of a word”.
In the first case, it is necessary to find such a single-root word so that the vowel being checked is under the stress. For example, water is water, sister is sister, and business is business.
In the second case, you need to find a word so that the unpronounceable consonant is well audible. For example, ches_ny - honor, hrus_nut - crunch.
Not only in these cases it is worth remembering what is the root of the word.Another important rule is based on the ability to allocate the root.
The alternation of vowels in the root
Due to the same historical reasons, different vowels are written in some words with the same root. For example, in the roots with alternating vowels e- and (-ber- -bir-, -per- - pir-, -mer- - peace-, -steel -stil, -der- -dir and others) the letter "and "is written only when the suffix -a- after the root should be, for example: to die - to die, to spread - to spread, to tear apart - to separate, to shine - to shine.
By alternating roots also include:
lag-lodge, kas-kos, plav-plov, clan-clone, tvar-tvor, mak-mok, har-gor, zar-zor, jumping-skoch, equally-even, growth-growth.
Read more about this.