What's in the center of the Earth?
Our planet Earth has a layered structure andconsists of three main parts: the earth's crust, mantle and core. What is the center of the Earth? Core. The depth of the core is 2900 km, and the diameter is about 3.5 thousand km. Inside there is a monstrous pressure of 3 million atmospheres and an incredibly high temperature of 5000 ° C. In order to find out what is in the center of the Earth, scientists took several centuries. Even modern technology could not penetrate deeper than twelve thousand kilometers. The deepest drilling well on the Kola Peninsula has a depth of 12,262 meters. The center of the Earth is far away.
History of the discovery of the Earth's core
One of the first to guess about the presence of a nucleus in the centerplanet English physicist and chemist Henry Cavendish in the late 18th century. With the help of physical experiments, he calculated the mass of the Earth and, based on its dimensions, determined the average density of matter of our planet - 5.5 g / cm3. The density of known rocks and minerals in the earth's crust was approximately half as large. This was followed by a logical assumption that in the center of the Earth is a region of a denser substance - the core.
In 1897 the German seismologist E. Wichert, studying the passage of seismic waves through the interior of the Earth, was able to confirm the assumption of the existence of a nucleus. And in 1910 American geophysicist B. Gutenberg determined the depth of its location. Subsequently, hypotheses about the process of nucleus formation were born. It is assumed that it was formed due to the settling of heavier elements towards the center, and initially the substance of the planet was homogeneous (gaseous).
What is the core of?
Investigate a substance whose sample can not beget to study its physical and chemical parameters, it is quite difficult. Scientists have only to assume about the presence of certain properties, as well as the structure and composition of the nucleus by indirect evidence. Especially in the study of the internal structure of the Earth, the study of the propagation of seismic waves helped. Seismographs located at many points on the surface of the planet record the speed and types of passing seismic waves arising from earthquake crises. All these data make it possible to judge the internal structure of the Earth, including the core.
To date, scientists suggest thatthe central part of the planet is not homogeneous. What is in the center of the Earth? The part adjacent to the mantle is a liquid core consisting of a molten substance. Apparently, there is a mixture of iron and nickel. This idea was brought to the attention of scientists by the study of iron meteorites, which are pieces of asteroids. On the other hand, the resulting iron-nickel alloys have a higher density than the assumed nuclear density. Therefore, many scientists are inclined to assume that in the center of the Earth, the nucleus, there are also lighter chemical elements.
The presence of a liquid core and the rotation of the planet aroundown axis of geophysics explain and the existence of a magnetic field. It is known that the electromagnetic field around the conductor occurs when the current flows. This is such a giant conductor with current and serves as a molten layer adjacent to the mantle.
The inner part of the nucleus, despite the temperature inseveral thousand degrees, is a solid. This is due to the fact that the pressure in the center of the planet is so high that the hot metals become solid. Some scientists suggest that the solid core consists of hydrogen, which under the influence of incredible pressure and a huge temperature becomes like metal. Thus, what is the center of the Earth, even scientists-geophysicists for the time being for certain is unknown. But if we consider the question from a mathematical point of view, then we can say that the center of the earth is located at approximately 6,378 km. from the surface of the planet.