Wooden flooring: installation technology, device and recommendations
Flooring of the wooden board in the mainis made in houses built from a similar material, but this coating is perfect for both an apartment and a block house, and will also help in the formation of a normal microclimate. Stacking does not cause any special difficulties, since this is an easy process that does not require special skills. Before starting work, it is advisable to study the theoretical part and pay attention to important aspects.
Floor on the basis of concrete
In private homes, the most widespreadhas acquired this option of coating formation. Wooden decking can be used both for a basement or first floor with a ground-based arrangement, and for a floor on the second and subsequent floors with overlapping along the beams. The design significantly changes if the base is made of reinforced concrete slabs or concrete screed, it is also possible to modify to simplify installation and reduce the total cost.
The works are carried out optimally at the end of the heatingseason due to the relationship between the moisture content of the wood and the ambient air. At this time, the probability of moisture absorption by boards is reduced. If you need a wooden flooring device in the summer, you need to choose the time when there will be dry and sunny weather for a long time. The involved lumber, like wood used in construction, must be treated with flame retardants and antiseptic agents.
Humidity, most suitable forinstallation and use of the floor is approximately 60%. As this indicator increases, the wood begins to deform and die, if it is too low, it will crack. The optimum temperature in the room is not less than +8 degrees.
Underground space should be enoughvented, for this purpose special holes are provided in the base. In the place of contact between the logs and the pillars, a double layer of roofing material is applied, so that the rotting of the material can be avoided.
The floor can be formed from the following materials:
- folded board;
- glued beams;
- sheet materials (plywood, chipboard);
- unedged board.
The last two options are used for roughingFloor, which implies the subsequent laying of the top cover. Creation of the finishing is carried out from glued beams and folded boards. They are lacquered or painted, becoming the basis. It is desirable that the board is integral and corresponds to the width of the room. The most widely spread cedar, larch and pine, hardwoods are not so popular. On average for the flooring of wooden floors prices are in the range of 300 to 1600 rubles per square meter.
When laying on a foundation of soil, it is requiredensuring tight lag anchoring. In addition, due attention is paid to the thermal insulation and waterproofing of the underground space. To prepare the base around the perimeter of the room, a layer of soil is removed, the thickness of which should be a value that makes the depression below the soil level near the house by 25 cm. Then, crushed stone and river sand are poured. Each layer is in turn dampened with water and densely dented.
It is built on sandy base severalbrick poles to support the lag. The width of the pillars is basically two bricks. They are placed in the construction on the solution and put in one level along the upper edge. A fixed and stretched mesh on the walls or a laser device is used to check the level. For each log, at least two pillars are required, this must be taken into account when distributing them. For a considerable length, it is possible to add an additional column. Calculate the distance between the supports in accordance with the dimensions of the board and the estimated weight transferred to them. Calculations can be carried out independently, based on GOSTs, in the event of difficulties, a construction designer or a specialized organization will help.
For a residential building, logs withsize 50 x 100 mm, which are installed on an interval of 60 cm. Fixing posts on the sides, intermediate is used if the length of the log is more than 3 meters.
There is no need for preparatoryworks when installing on interstore beams, so you can immediately begin flooring with a wooden board. On top of them is laid a layer of waterproofing, which is the ruberoid sheets. The logs are placed on a plate with a width of 3-4 cm and fixed using anchors on the posts. Thanks to the used plates it is possible to bring the face to the common plane. Initially, at the different ends of the room two lags are mounted with an extreme support on each. They are output to the required level with the correctness of the installation with the help of water, bubble or laser type.
Level Definition: Details
The best option is a preliminarythe removal of the line along the perimeter in a meter from the future floor and the subsequent comparison of the position of the lag with this level. In such works, the bubble level is less reliable and, in view of the small accuracy, it often gives the wrong result. The line should be stretched level with lags located at the edges. Starting from it, mount the remaining elements. To create a rough coat, the same bars are stuffed along the bottom of the log. If they are on poles and have a ground base, the bars across them are attached across the entire area of the room at a distance of 50-70 cm from each other. To secure the bars, self-tapping screws or nails are used.
After that, the elements of the rough coating from sheet material or boards of unedged type are cut. They are located on the bars between the lags.
Recently, a new technique has been created, thanks to which the structure of the wooden flooring is simplified. Due to it, such problems as deformation, shrinkage and cracks are eliminated.
The main part of the technology is the hollow blocktype, assembled from elements that are shredded from high-grade materials with a small diameter. It is such a block structure, consisting of two bars, tightly fixed partitions. There is a free cavity between the frequent structures.
Wooden decking requires insulation frommaterial having high vapor permeability. It is possible to use basalt slabs and mineral wool. Thermal insulation does not cause difficulties when placing logs at a distance of 600 mm. It is not allowed to cut the material accurately according to the dimensions of the gaps. It is necessary to insert the strips tightly so that no free gaps appear. For a normal ventilation, there should be a small space between the bars and the heat insulator. The function of the thermal insulation material also includes sound insulation. Before making a wooden flooring, a vapor-waterproofing membrane is laid on the logs. Spread strips with an overlap of not less than 25 cm with the help of adhesive tape glued joints. The vapor barrier layer, depending on the version, is fixed with brackets or slats. The flooring material affects the fixing method.
A special board of wooden flooring with a vent hole does not require mandatory padding.
Concrete foundation: preparatory work
In order to equip the wooden flooring with your ownhands on the concrete structure, it takes much less time and effort, since the base is already ready and the logs can be fastened as often as necessary, thereby reducing the weight of the bend. So, there is no sense in applying a log with a large section. A beam of 50 x 50 is ideal as a basic material. The logs are fixed with construction pins with a diameter of up to 10 mm. The stud in the lower part is limited by a nut, it also sets the level of the end of the lag with the washer together with the washer from the lower side.
Drill holes in studs for studs,which are strengthened every 60 cm in the level of installation of the lag. The holes in the upper part must have sufficient expansion to accommodate the nut and washer for fixing.
At opposite ends of the room are mountedtwo lags and put with the help of studs on the level. Installation of the rest is determined by the line located between them. The angular grinder cleans the excess protruding parts of the studs. Then you can start the flooring of the wooden floor with your own hands using sheet materials or the floorboard. If it is a leveling intermediate for the finish coat, then the use of plywood becomes rational.
Mounting boards is made on cookedbeforehand lags. The first board is fastened parallel to the entrance near the window. There should be free space between the array and the wall. Fastening is possible with the help of nails with a length several times the width of the boards, or self-tapping screws, which make up two sizes. The nails are driven at an angle into the grooves at the ends. After mounting several rows of boards. In the lag, with a small retreat, an ordinary steel brace is inserted.
Between the laid wood and the bracket forIncreasing the density of joints using wooden wedges. The material is secured with nails. So the floor is covered up to the very end, just like the wooden decking of bridges.
If the floor width exceeds the length of oneboards, they must be cut so that in one row the ends are in the center of the lag. Planks are installed in the adjacent rows in staggered order.
The selection of adjacent boards is carried out taking into accountthe direction of annual rings - they must go in different directions. From the wall at a distance of 15 mm, the last board is installed. Skirting boards are used to close gaps when finishing work. To increase ventilation under the floor, the plinth is fixed to one wall with an indentation of at least 10 mm. After a few weeks, it can be replaced by a normal one. To protect wooden decking from the penetration of moisture under them during harvesting can be done with the help of low racks installed along the perimeter of rectangular small holes in the two corners of the room.
For stacking sheet material requiredadditional securing of jumpers between lags to increase the strength of the installation throughout the area. There are no other differences in the installation of the floor. In conclusion, the wooden decks are subjected to cycling, polishing and coating with paint or varnish. It is possible to use putty on wood to compact existing gaps, due to the content of drying oil in the composition, it is not subject to cracking. Rare wood species can be imitated by toning technology. You can also use a special wax or oil to add a matte nice gloss surface. After the coating dries, the floor is ready for use.